Professor: Katharyn E.K. Nottis, Candice Stefanou
Associate Professors: Abra N. Feuerstein, Amy Golightly, Sue Ellen Henry, Lynn M. Hoffman (Chair), Sarah MacKenzie, Robert M. Midkiff Jr. (Associate Provost), Joseph L. Murray, Lori A. Smolleck
Assistant Professors: Ramona Fruja, Richard B. Henne-Ochoa, Lakeisha D. Meyer, David Ragland (visiting)
The Education Department works to prepare students for prominent roles as public intellectuals. We seek to cultivate citizens who are broadly educated, thoughtful, and committed to lifelong learning as a means to better themselves and society. Our blend of social sciences and professional preparation coursework is theoretically grounded and presents educational issues within social contexts that are diverse and evolving. Graduates will use their capacity for self-reflection and ethical reasoning to respond creatively to challenges encountered in their personal and professional lives.
The department offers both the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science in education and the requirements within each program are described below. A major in education within either degree program can prepare students to pursue careers in teaching. It also provides the necessary background and preparation for graduate work in an array of disciplines, and for careers in law, business, and public service.
The Bachelor of Arts degree with a major in education is designed for students who are interested in studying the process and structure of education and schooling but who are not necessarily interested in pursuing a career in teaching. Students who want to obtain certification in early childhood education should pursue the Bachelor of Science in education degree. Students interested in secondary certification normally seek a degree in the discipline they wish to teach and may either pursue certification only or a dual major in education and the discipline.
Bachelor of Arts in Education
The field of education is best understood as an interdisciplinary social science that integrates multiple perspectives on human learning and development; processes that occur across the lifespan and in widely varied contexts. The Bachelor of Arts in education is designed for students who are interested in studying education as an academic field — the process and structure of education in both traditional schooling situations as well as other educational arenas of public life — but who are not necessarily interested in a career in public school teaching. Central to the Bachelor of Arts is the examination of the relationship between educational institutions (broadly conceived) and society, as well as deep exploration of the nature of learning and learners. The program is designed to prepare students to make original contributions to knowledge in the field, through research and creative applications of theory.
The Bachelor of Arts major in education requires eight (8) courses which fall into two categories. First, all students must complete a core set of four (4) requirements: EDUC 101, EDUC 201, EDUC 362 or EDUC 364, and one Culminating Experience course. Culminating Experiences can be EDUC 315 Senior Thesis, EDUC 425 Internship in Education or, in selective cases, EDUC 316 Teaching in Diverse Societies. The last of these options is a permission course. Second, all students must complete four (4) additional courses in one of the following concentrations. Electives, where specified, may be taken abroad in consultation with the student's adviser. Students develop competency in speaking, writing, and information literacy through the completion of small group and individual presentations and research projects within core and concentration courses. To fulfill their Culminating Experience requirement, students produce reflective journals and write, implement, and revise lesson plans if they select EDUC 316. Otherwise, they write and defend an undergraduate thesis (EDUC 315), or complete an electronic portfolio documenting their internship experience (EDUC 425).
College Student Personnel
The college student personnel concentration is designed for those who have an interest in student affairs administration in higher education. Student affairs administration is a broad field that includes such areas of specialization as residence life, student activities, admissions, and career services, just to name a few. Bucknell is unique in offering an undergraduate course sequence that introduces students to the foundational literature of the field prior to enrollment in graduate school. This concentration prepares graduates for advanced coursework in the field and serves as a foundation for professional practice in graduate assistantships and other entry level positions. The recommended academic credential for those aspiring to long‐term careers in the field is the master's degree in college student personnel.
The College Student Personnel concentration requires EDUC 312, EDUC 350, EDUC 351 and EDUC 398.
Contemporary Landscapes of Education
The contemporary landscapes of education concentration is designed for students who are interested in studying entrepreneurial innovations in education such as charter schools, after-school programs, cyber-schools, home schooling, and alternative teacher preparation programs (such as Teach for America and the like). This concentration aims to prepare students to think critically about the ways in which these alternative educational programs influence education in U.S. society, and supports those who may wish to work within these types of settings.
The Contemporary Landscapes of Education concentration requires EDUC 240 or EDUC 346, EDUC 318 or EDUC 327, EDUC 320 and an elective selected in consultation with the student's adviser.
The educational research concentration is designed for those who have an interest in the empirical exploration of issues central to education. This concentration prepares graduates in quantitative, qualitative and mixed research methodologies in a range of contexts relevant to education within and outside of school. Graduates with this concentration may be interested in pursuing graduate study in educational psychology, cognitive psychology, or in a specialty area within education, or they may be interested in working for educational research organizations, public policy organizations, or organizations that are generally concerned with the improvement of education.
The Educational Research concentration requires EDUC 305, EDUC 328, EDUC 362 or EDUC 364 (whichever is not taken in the core courses) and one (1) elective selected in consultation with the student's adviser.
The human diversity concentration is designed for students interested in examining the relationships between U.S. demographic change and learners in schools and in non‐traditional educational settings. This study is both historically and sociologically grounded, with significant attention to identity development and interactions with social institutions across a range of human experience. Those pursuing this concentration may be interested in graduate school in social foundations of education, educational policy, or a related subject area, or may be interested in entering work environments that focus on children's issues, children and the media, educational inequality, and educational reform.
The Human Diversity concentration requires EDUC 308, EDUC 318, EDUC 290 or EDUC 322, and one (1) elective selected in consultation with the student's adviser.
Learning and Development across the Lifespan
This concentration is designed for students who have an interest in examining the ways in which individuals change over the course of the lifespan. Attention is focused on implications for teaching and learning, taking into account cognitive, psychosocial, and physical changes that occur over time. Students also gain exposure to a variety of theoretical orientations toward teaching and learning, including cognitive, behavioral, social, constructivist, and humanistic perspectives. Graduates with this concentration may be interested in working within educational and social service organizations that target the needs of specific age groups or pursuing graduate education in corresponding areas of specialization.
The Learning and Development across the Lifespan concentration requires EDUC 323, EDUC 334, EDUC 351, and one (1) elective selected in consultation with the student's adviser.
Support Services for Children and Adolescents
The support services concentration is designed for those who seek to foster the academic, emotional, and behavioral development of children and adolescents. Emphasis is on theoretical knowledge and practical applications of this knowledge. Those pursuing this concentration will develop intervention skills, such as counseling, consultation, and collaboration. Graduates may be interested in entering work environments such as behavioral health or correctional facilities, social service agencies, and school support services. This concentration also prepares students to enter graduate school in the fields of school psychology and school counseling.
The Support Services concentration requires EDUC 312, EDUC 334 or 335, EDUC 347, and one (1) elective selected in consultation with the student's adviser.
Bachelor of Science in Education
The Bachelor of Science with a major in early childhood education (Pre-K-grade 4) is designed for students who have clearly defined professional interests in the field of education and who desire to pursue a career in early childhood education, grades preK-4. The degree requires: EDUC 101, EDUC 201, EDUC 230, EDUC 235, EDUC 323, EDUC 341, EDUC 342, EDUC 343, EDUC 344, EDUC 346, EDUC 347, EDUC 349, and EDUC 449. Students develop competency in speaking, writing, and information literacy through small group and individual presentations, research projects, debates, and the creation and presentation of unit and lesson plans within required courses. Candidates' Culminating Experience, the 12-week student teaching semester (EDUC 349 and EDUC 449), includes extensive unit research and lesson planning, implementation, and presentation, along with the completion of written assignments pertinent to their experience. In addition, students develop and present electronic program portfolios, further demonstrating their technological expertise.
Additional Certification Requirements
Students seeking certification in early childhood education (Pre-K-4) are also required to take MATH 117 and MATH 118; a course in English literature (preferably ENGL 218 or ENGL 220); and PSYC 207 in addition to meeting other certification requirements listed on the education department website (www.bucknell.edu/education). Requirements may change as mandated by the legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Secondary Education and Teaching Certification
The following list shows the secondary and K-12 certifications offered by the department. Students seeking these certifications also must complete the requirements for the Bachelor of Science or Bachelor of Arts in the discipline listed after the certification area.
Certification Area -- Required Major
Art (K-12) — Art
Biology (7-12) — Biology
Chemistry (7-12) — Chemistry
Earth and Space Science (7-12) — Geology
English (7-12) — English
Foreign Language (K-12)
French — French
German — German
Latin — Classics
Spanish — Spanish
General Science (7-12)* — See below*
Mathematics (7-12) — Mathematics
Music (K-12) — Music
Physics (7-12) — Physics
Social Studies (7-12) — Anthropology, Economics, Geography, History, Political Science, Psychology, or Sociology
*Required additional certification in one of the following areas: Biology, Chemistry, Earth and Space Science, or Physics
Required education courses for secondary and K-12 teaching certification include: EDUC 101, EDUC 201, EDUC 230, EDUC 240, EDUC 334 or EDUC 335, EDUC 339 and a methods course in the content area. Students must also complete a semester of student teaching including EDUC 359** and EDUC 459, a three-credit course that can be taken only if the student demonstrates that all requirements leading to a recommendation for certification have been or soon will be completed. Specific requirements may change as mandated by the legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Lists of courses acceptable for meeting specific requirements are available at the departmental office and website.
**Students who cannot or choose not to take EDUC 359 and EDUC 459 should complete the B.A. or B.S. in the content area or consult with the chair of the education department to select appropriate courses to complete a B.A. in education.
ESL Program Specialist
Students completing teaching certification programs in elementary education, early childhood education, English, math, or world language can obtain a Letter of Eligibility leading to an additional certification as an ESL Program specialist. A list of required courses can be found on the department website. Sixty hours of field experience are required for this additional certification.
General Requirements for Teaching Certification
The department of education provides teacher preparation programs which lead to certification in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in early childhood education, and selected content areas in secondary education. Students can prepare to become certified teachers by enrolling in a Bachelor of Science in education degree program or by taking a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree in the content area in which they plan to teach. Independent of the degree program into which a student is admitted to the University or the area in which a student may wish to teach, a student also must be formally admitted to the Pre-Certification, Initial Preparation Program (Pre-CIP). Admission to Pre-CIP can occur after the student has completed two courses in mathematics*, one course in British or American literature and one in composition*, 12 Bucknell University courses or their equivalent, and achieved for the three preceding semesters an overall grade point average of 3.0 (appeals to this requirement should be made to the chair of the department of education). Candidates must also pass the PAPA (Pre-service Academic Performance Assessment) tests in reading, writing, and math. Application to Pre-CIP is normally made when the students begin considering a career in the field of education and are notified of their acceptance or rejection at the end of their sophomore year.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania generally requires an overall grade point average of 3.0 upon completion of the program prior to recommendation for certification to teach. Specific requirements leading to a recommendation in each teaching area are available at the education department website. It is the responsibility of the student to examine these programs in consultation with a member of the education department. Although members of the department will advise students concerning course selection, the student is responsible for choosing those courses and experiences that meet certification program requirements.
In addition to completing an approved program and successfully demonstrating the prescribed role competencies, the prospective teacher must be a "person of good moral character" who "possesses those personal qualities and professional knowledge and skills which warrant issuance of the requested certificate." It is the student's responsibility to satisfy these criteria. Students should note that prior to placement in student teaching or any other field experience, they will be required to submit results of a child abuse clearance, criminal background check and fingerprinting pursuant to requirements of the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Results must indicate that there are no criminal or child abuse records.
In addition to coursework, students must complete and submit scores from required Praxis or PECT examinations to the department of education at Bucknell. Specific examinations required for each area of certification vary. Although members of the department will advise students concerning examinations, the student is responsible for taking those examinations that meet certification program requirements.
After completing the approved program of courses, the student submits an application for a Pennsylvania teaching certificate through the online Teacher Information Management System (TIMS) not earlier than the first day of the month of graduation. Following a review of the student's program, the student may be recommended for certification by the designated officer at Bucknell. As noted above, the student must pass all the competency tests required by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the desired certificate.
Students who desire certification in states other than Pennsylvania must understand that teacher certification is governed by state law and that each state has different requirements. Obtaining a Pennsylvania teaching certificate, by completing an approved program and meeting all other requirements, does not ensure that students will be certified in another state. Although members of the Bucknell education department will assist students in obtaining information concerning certification in other states, as well as Pennsylvania, it is the student's responsibility to obtain current information and to meet all the certification requirements of any state.
*Exceptions to these requirements will be posted on the education department website: www.bucknell.edu/education
The education department is responsible for the professional preparation of future teachers. To ensure that future professionals are competent, the privilege of taking the course in student teaching (EDUC 349 and EDUC 449 or EDUC 359 and EDUC 459) is restricted to students whose cumulative grade point average through the junior year is 3.0 or better. Additional requirements for all student teachers are good health, character, personality, and acceptable spoken and written English. Placement in student teaching is contingent upon acceptance of the student by a cooperating teacher in an elementary or secondary school that has been approved by the Bucknell education department. Students must complete an application for student teaching by November 1 of the junior year. This application is to be made from the education department website. In addition, students are responsible for obtaining transportation to the placement. Also, the education department reserves the right to specify the semester during which a student is permitted to enroll in student teaching.
All students who are interested in student teaching must apply to the Pre-CIP Program no later than the first semester of the junior year.
The minor in education consists of five courses chosen from among the departmental offerings. The student is encouraged to choose courses within a particular area of specialization. Such areas of specialization include, but are not limited to, literacy, early childhood education, research and evaluation in education, educational policy studies, college student personnel, and diversity studies. Recommended clusters of courses for particular areas of specialization are available on the departmental web page.
Social Foundations of Education (I and II; 3, 0)
Historical, economic, philosophical, and social foundations of education, and their implications for present-day education in America. Provides a background of information for the prospective teacher and citizen. Not open to seniors.
Education and the Human Spirit (S; 6, 0)
This course explores the role of spirituality within education. There is a strong focus on theory and practice in relationship to personal experience. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.
Educational Psychology (I and II; 3, 0)
Role of psychological concepts in educational practices. Nature, sources of individual differences in development and readiness. Learning theory, motivation, and emotion in learning. Issues in identifying and supporting the learning of all students. Measurement and evaluation of learning.
Foundations of Classroom Assessment (II; 3, 0)
Use of observation, documentation, and assessment to develop instructional practices that support learning of all children. Includes assessment across environments and for different purposes. Prerequisite: EDUC 201.
Integrated Arts in Learning (II; 3, 0)
Students will be introduced to intermodal aspects of art (dance, music, theatre, visual arts, and poetry) and how they might be used to develop and enhance curriculum within the inclusive classroom as well as alternative learning environments. Issues of health, learning disabilities, learning styles, and cultural difference will be actively explored through the theoretical lens of arts-based education.
Literacy and Learning in the Diverse Classroom (II; 3, 0)
Students explore how diverse adolescents develop abilities to decode, interpret, and use language and mathematical sign systems to gain access to secondary school content knowledge. Students also analyze structures and tools of inquiry embedded in secondary school subjects. Other topics: curriculum integration, strategies for literacy development, learning disabilities that impact literacy, and teaching and learning of English Language Learners. Required fieldwork. Prerequisites: EDUC 101 and EDUC 201.
Gender Issues in Education (I; 3, 0)
An examination of how gender affects the teaching-learning process with an emphasis on theory, curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment. Prerequisite: EDUC 201 or permission of the instructor. Crosslisted as WMST 290.
Behavioral Assessment and Intervention (AII; 3, 1)
Strategies for problem solving in educational institutions, mental health facilities, and industry with an emphasis on data-driven decision-making and positive intervention. Problems considered will focus on motivation, design of instructional systems, and human communication. Field experience required.
Positive Behavior Support (II; 3, 0)
Study of motivations underlying human behavior; exploration of ecological and human interactions and mechanisms for behavior change. Role of supporting adaptive responses to environmental conditions.
Cognitive Learning in Multiple Contexts (AI; 3, 0)
Both the theories and practical applications of cognitive psychology and development are emphasized. How theories connect to the field of cognitive neuroscience is also addressed. Prerequisite: EDUC 201 or permission of the instructor.
Advanced Educational Foundations: Democracy and Education (II; 3, 0)
This course employs a multidisciplinary approach to explore the special relationship between education and democracy in "free" societies such as the United States. Students will critically examine the American educational system and its contemporary problems through the lenses of history, philosophy, sociology, and anthropology. Prerequisite: EDUC 101.
Counseling Techniques (I or II; 3, 4)
This course provides an introduction to counseling theory and training in micro-skills of counseling and interviewing. Students have an opportunity to practice a wide range of counseling techniques with videotaping. Required field placement or service learning experience.
School Psychological Services (I or II; 3, 0)
An overview of school psychological services in public K-12 settings, and the theory and practice of collaborative consultation in the school environment. Field experience required. Preference given to juniors and seniors.
Senior Thesis (I or II)
Open to qualified seniors. Prerequisite: permission of the department.
Teaching in Diverse Environments (II; 3, 2)
Supervised practice in the design and implementation of instruction in non-traditional learning environments. Emphasis on theory informing practice. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.
Problems in Education (I or II; R; 2-4, 0) Quarter to full course.
Research on a problem not involved in a student thesis. Upperclass students. Prerequisites: three courses in education or permission of the instructor.
Multiculturalism and Education (II; 3, 0)
This course combines social science and educational research with narrative accounts to explore the historical, philosophical, sociological, and political foundations of the multicultural movement in American education. The course will examine and critique contemporary issues such as the educational experiences of minority groups, inclusive pedagogy, and bilingual education.
Ethics in Education (I or II; 3, 0)
Application of traditional and contemporary ethical theories to current dilemmas in teaching, research, counseling, administration, and educational policy.
Psychology of the Exceptional Child (AI; 3, 0)
Understanding the psychology of the exceptional child from childhood through adolescence. Focused involvement in building an understanding of the diverse ways cognitive disabilities are manifested in children and adolescents with an emphasis on prevention, intervention and remediation. Optional fieldwork.
Education of Young Children (II; 3, 4)
A conceptual-developmental overview of the social, emotional, cognitive, and physical characteristics of the early childhood years (to age 9) stressing extrapolation from developmental theory to educational practice for teachers and parents who function as the earliest educators.
Career Development (S; 6, 0)
An examination of career decision making and career choices within the context of cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development, with emphasis on both theory and practice.
Immigrant Youth in U.S. Society (I or II; 3, 0)
This course examines the varied trajectories in contemporary immigrant youth adaptations across social contexts, including schools, families, peer groups and work.
Tests and Measurement (AII; 3, 0)
Introduction to the fundamental concepts of measurement and testing theory with emphasis on the application of those concepts in a variety of educational, psychological, and employment settings.
Later Childhood and Adolescence (I and II; 3, 0)
Uses theory, case studies, and field experience to illustrate early and later adolescent development. Required fieldwork. Not open to students who have taken EDUC 335.
Child and Adolescent Development (I; 3, 0)
Social, emotional, cognitive, and physical development from age 5 to 18 in relation to the educational environment, including the interaction of the child with family, adults, and peers. Required fieldwork. Not open to students who have taken EDUC 334.
Inclusive Practices (I; 3, 4)
Students will explore the unique instructional needs of L2 learners and students with disabilities and learn how to modify and adjust content, process, and product to enhance their development in inclusive classrooms. Required fieldwork.
Early Literacy (II; 3, 4)
A study of the strategies and techniques involved in teaching children to read and to write (Pre-K-4 level). Contemporary theories of reading behavior. Required fieldwork. Prerequisites: EDUC 101 and EDUC 201.
Differentiation and Diversity in Education (II; 3, 4)
Differential instruction and cultural awareness to foster the learning of all students in inclusive classrooms. Adaptations for reading, writing, spelling, and mathematics included. Required field work. Prerequisite: EDUC 341 or EDUC 240 or permission of the instructor.
Culture and Community (II; 3, 0)
Consideration of special problems arising in teaching social studies in elementary and secondary schools. Influences determining course content, including state and national standards. Prerequisites: EDUC 101 and EDUC 201 or permission of the instructor.
Science as Inquiry (I; 3, 4)
This course reflects best practices for the teaching of science as outlined in the National Science Education Standards and the Pennsylvania State Standards. This course provides students with instructional methods and curricular materials appropriate for teaching science concepts, processes, and skills to young children. Teaching science as inquiry will serve as the foundation for the course. Prerequisites: EDUC 101 and EDUC 201.
Literacy Across Contexts (II; 3, 4)
Principles of creating a developmentally appropriate elementary learning environment. Emphasis is placed on the process of designing instruction appropriate for learners at various levels of cognitive, emotional, and social development. Language arts and its domains will be used to illustrate, explain, and extend course concepts. Issues related to student motivation and classroom management also will be examined. Required fieldwork. Prerequisites: EDUC 101, EDUC 201, and EDUC 341, or permission of the instructor.
Family, School, and Community Partnerships (I or II; 3, 0)
Students will explore important factors and effective strategies in creating and sustaining respectful, reciprocal, supportive, and empowering relationships with families to enhance children's development and learning.
Student Teaching Elementary (I and II; 0, 35) Three courses.
Supervised practice in the design and implementation of instruction in elementary school classrooms. Emphasis on professional conduct and use of theory to inform practice. Prerequisites: senior status, acceptance into Pre-CIP, all required certification courses, or permission of the instructor. Corequisite: EDUC 449.
Higher Education in the United States (I; 3, 0)
Overview of historical and contemporary trends in post-secondary education: systematic examination of selected social, political, economic, and educational forces and problems affecting contemporary higher education.
Learning and Development in Postsecondary Education (I; 3, 0)
Investigation of contemporary theories pertaining to the processes of learning and development that occur from later adolescence through old age.
Teaching of Art (I; 3, 4)
Principles and practices of teaching art in grades K-12. Interested students should meet with the chair of the department of education no later than March 15 of sophomore year. Prerequisites: EDUC 101, EDUC 201 and EDUC 335.
Teaching of Science in Secondary School (II; 3, 4)
Principles and practices of teaching biology, chemistry, physics, earth and space science, and environmental science in grades 7-12. Prerequisites: EDUC 101, EDUC 201, and EDUC 334 or EDUC 335 (EDUC 335 required for environmental science).
Student Teaching: Secondary (I and II; 0, 35) Three courses.
Supervised practice in design and implementation of instruction in secondary school classrooms. Emphasis on professional conduct and use of theory to inform practice. Prerequisites: senior status and permission of the instructor. Corequisite: EDUC 459.
Quantitative Research Methods (II or S; 3, 0)
This course emphasizes the design of experimental research and the development of skills in analyzing and interpreting data. Experimental research in education and psychology is critiqued in terms of theory, past research, hypothesis generation, and research design. Data analysis involves the use of the statistical packages such as SPSS, which are broadly applicable to the social and psychological sciences.
Qualitative Research Methods (I; 3, 0)
This is an introduction to the foundations of qualitative design in education, including: history, philosophy, nature, types, examples, and the challenges associated with data collection and its interpretation.
Methods of Teaching English as a Second Language (II; 3, 0)
This course focuses on preparing to teach students for whom English is their second language (ESL). It focuses on three primary areas: instructional materials development for ESL; assessment and support of ESL students; and cultural awareness and sensitivity.
Student Affairs Programs in Higher Education (II; 3, 0)
The study of historical and philosophical foundations of the student affairs profession and the roles and functions of student affairs professionals in contemporary collegiate institutions.
Internship in Education (I or II; 3, 0)
Supervised practice in an educational setting including a structured reflection component. This course may be used to fulfill the culminating experience course requirement for the B.A. in education. Prerequisite: permission of the adviser.
Student Teaching in Music (I or II; 0; 35) Three courses.
Corequisite: MUSC 335. Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.
Professional Seminar in Elementary Education (I and II; 3, 0)
Systematic approach to the observation, interpretation, verification, and remediation of problems affecting student learning. Psychological and sociological theory informing teaching practice. Implications of student diversity for adaptation of instruction. Prerequisites: EDUC 342, senior status, and permission of the instructor. Corequisite: EDUC 349.
Professional Seminar in Secondary Education (I and II; 3, 0)
Systematic approach to the observation, interpretation, verification, and remediation of problems affecting student learning. Psychological and sociological theory informing teaching practice. Implications of student diversity for adaptation of instruction. Prerequisites: senior status and permission of the instructor. Corequisite: EDUC 359.
Local Educational Politics (II; 3, 0)
This course introduces students to a variety of philosophical, political, and sociological theories that explain the nature of conflict in the educational arena.
Methods courses offered by other departments: ENGL 297 Teaching of English; LING 241 Teaching Foreign Language; MATH 207 Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools