THE IMPERIAL PERIOD, 1689-1917

1689-1725 PETER I, THE GREAT
1695 Beginning of the Russian navy
1696 July 18 Surrender of Azov to Peter I
1697 Conquest of Kamchatka
1697-1698 Peter's visit to the West
Revolt of Streltsy crushed
1700 Suspension of the patriarchate
1700-1721 Great Northern War with Sweden
1703 Founding of St. Petersburg
Russia's first newspaper established: Vedomosti o voennykh i inykh delakh
May Peter & Paul Fortress founded
1704 Peter I takes Narva from Charles XII of Sweden
1707-1708 Bulavin uprising
1708 Establishment of the guberniias (provinces)
1709 Russian victory over Charles XII of Sweden at Poltava
1710 First census (household and tax)
1711 First press in St. Petersburg
November 19 Mikhail Lomonosov born
1713 Transfer of capital to St. Petersburg
1716-1717 Jean-Baptiste Le Blond begins Petrodvorets (Peterhof)
1718 Institution of poll tax
Foundation of administrative colleges
Tsarevich Alexis killed
1720 Pososhkov's book On Poverty and Wealth
1721 Holy Synod replaces patriarchate
Treaty of Nystad: Livonia, Estonia, Karelia, Ingria acquired from Sweden
Peter assumes the title of emperor
Organization of state postal service
1722 Table of Ranks established
1725 Death of Peter the Great
Foundation of the Academy of Sciences
1725-1727 CATHERINE I SKAVRONSKA
1727-1730 PETER II ROMANOV
1728 Sankt-Peterburgskie vedomosti first published
1725-1729 Arctic expedition of Vitus Bering (second, 1732-1741)
1730 Struggle over the terms of the succession
1730-1740 ANNA ROMANOVA
1741 Lomonosov appointed to the Academy of Sciences
Vitus Bering discovers the Aleutian Islands and Alaska
1740-1741 IVAN VI ROMANOV
1741-1762 ELIZABETH ROMANOVA
1746 Ban of purchase of serfs by non-nobles
1750 First professional Russian theater founded in Yaroslavl by Fyodor Volkov
1753 Decree abolishing internal customs
1754-1762 Bartolomeo Rastrelli builds the Winter Palace
1755 Lomonosov founds Moscow University
1760's Fonvizin's comedies The Brigadier, The General and The Minor
1760 Landowners granted right to exile serfs to Siberia
1761-1762 PETER III ROMANOV
1762 Peter III issues Manifesto on the Rights of the Nobility
Peter III murdered
1762-1796 CATHERINE II THE GREAT VON ANHALT-ZERBST
1764-67 Founding of German colonies along the Lower Volga River
1764 Final secularization of Church lands
1765 Establishment of the Free Economic Society
1767 Peasants forbidden to submit complaints against their landowners
1767-1768 Legislative Commission
1769-1794 Catherine the Great publishes satirical journals
Novikov's journals The Drone and The Painter
1772 First partition of Poland--Belorussia annexed to Russia
1773-1775 Revolt of Pugachev
1774 Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji
1775 Liquidation of the Zaporozhian Cossacks
1780's Englishman Cameron builds at Tsarskoe Selo
1781-1786 Full absorption of the Ukraine into Russian Empire
1782-1785 Giacomo Quarenghi builds the Hermitage
1783 Incorporation of the Crimea
Private printing presses permitted
1784 Gregory Shelekov establishes the first colony in Alaska
1785 April 21 Charter of the Nobility and gentry an estate
1790 Radishchev's Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow
1793 Second Partition of Poland
1795 Third Partition of Poland
1796 Death of Catherine the Great
The Alexander Palace is completed
1796-1801 PAUL I ROMANOV
1797 Establishment of the three-day barshchina
1799 Russo-American Trading Company formed
Suvorov's campaign in northern Italy and Switzerland
June 6 Alexander S. Pushkin born
1801 Murder of Paul I
1801-1825 ALEXANDER I ROMANOV
1801 Acquisition of eastern Georgia
Sale of serfs without land prohibited
1802 Formation of ministries
1806 Conquest of Daghestan and Baku
1806-1815 The new Admiralty built by Zakharov
1807-1811 Reforms of Speransky
1809 Krylov's Fables
Annexation of Finland
1812 June 24 Napoleon's invasion of Russia
  August 26 Battle of Borodino
  Sept 14 Napoleon enters Moscow
  October 19 Napoleon departs Moscow
1813-1814 Alexander's pursuit of Napoleon to Paris
1815-1825 Ascendancy of Arakcheev
1816-1819 Abolition of serfdom in Baltic provinces
1817 Transfer of the Makariev Fair to Nizhnii Novgorod
1817-1857 Montferrand builds St. Isaac's Cathedral
1818 Karamzin's History of the Russian State
1819 University of St. Petersburg founded
1819-1829 The Italian Rossi builds the General Staff Building on Palace Square
1821 F. M. Dostoevsky born October 30 in Moscow
1825-1855 NICHOLAS I ROMANOV
1825 Decembrist Uprising Griboedov's comedy Woe from Wit
1830 Briullov's painting Last Day of Pompeii
Alexander Pushkin completes Eugene Onegin
Mathematician Lobachevsky publishes first work
1830-1831 Polish rebellion
1832 Uvarov's three principles enunciated: autocracy, orthodoxy, nationality
Alexandrine Theater in St. Petersburg opened
1833 Code of Laws
1834 Kiev University founded
1836 Nov 27 Glinka's opera Life for the Tsar (Ivan Susanin)
Gogol's Inspector General
Chadaaev's Philosophical Letters
1837 A. S. Pushkin shot in a dual with D'Anthes, dies January 29
1838 First Russian railroad--St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo
Gubernskie vedomosti first published by order of the tsar
1838-1847 Belinsky works on the Notes of the Fatherland
1840 Lermontov's Hero of Our Time
1841 Ban against the sale of peasants individually
1842 Glinka's opera Ruslan and Ludmila
Gogol's Dead Souls
1846
  May 30
Abolition of Corn Laws in England; increase of Russian grain exports
Peter Carl Faberge born in St. Petersburg
1847 Herzen leaves Russia forever
Belinsky's Letter to Gogol
1849 Dostoevsky sentenced to forced labor in Siberia
Russian intervention in Hungary
1851 Nov 13 St. Petersburg-Moscow railway opened
1852 Turgenev's Sportsman's Notebook
1853 Ostrovsky's first play produced
1853-1856 Crimean War
1855 Death of Nicholas I
1855-1881 ALEXANDER II ROMANOV
1856 George | Plekhanov born
1857 First issue of Herzen's Kolokol (The Bell)
Alexander Ivanov's painting Christ's Appearance to the People
1858-1860 Acquisition from China of Amur and Maritime provinces
1859 Surrender of Shamil; conquest of Caucasus completed
Goncharov's Oblomov
1860 Founding of Vladivostok
1860-1873 First railway boom
1861 Feb 19 Emancipation of the serfs
1862 St. Petersburg Conservatory founded; Anton Rubinstein, director
The Mighty Five (Balakierev, Cui, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky) announce intentions to create a school of true Russian music
Turgenev's Fathers and Sons
1863 Polish rebellion
Artists Co-operative Society (Peredvizhniki) founded
Chernyshevsky's What Is To Be Done?
1863-1865 Law (courts) and education reform Zemstvo instituted
1864-1885 Conquest of central Asia
1866 Moscow Conservatory founded; Tchaikovsky becomes a professor
Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment is published
1867 March 30 Alaska sold to the United States of America
1869 Tolstoy's War and Peace is published
1870
April 22
Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions (Peredvizhniks)
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) is born
Mendeleyev's Principles of Chemistry
1872 Russian translation of Marx's Capital
Carl Faberge takes over his father's jewelry business
1873 Beginning of the movement To the People (V narod)
1874 Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov
1876 Land and Freedom Party
1877 Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake
1877-1878
March 3
June 13
War with Turkey
Treaty of San Stefano
Congress of Berlin Begins
1878 Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto takes Paris by storm
Tchaikovsky's opera Eugene Onegin
Tolstoy's Anna Karenina
1879 People's Will Party and Black Partition established
1880 Dostoevsky's Brothers Karamazov
1881 March 1 Assassination of Alexander II
1881-1894 ALEXANDER III ROMANOV
1884 Reactionary regulations for universities
1888 Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade
1890 Borodin's opera Prince Igor
Tchaikovsky's Sleeping Beauty
1891 Beginning of the Trans-Siberian railway
1891-1893 Making of the Franco-Russian alliance
1892 Tret'iakov donates his art collection to the city of Moscow
1892-1903 Witte as minister of communications, finance and commerce
1894-1917 NICHOLAS II ROMANOV
1896 Disastrous production of Chekhov's The Seagull in St. Petersburg
1897 Jan 28 First all-Russian census counts 128,907,692 people
1898 Moscow Art Theater founded, produces Chekhov's Sea Gull
1st Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Party (Minsk)
Occupation of Port Arthur
1900 Boxer Rebellion; Russia occupies Manchuria
1901 Jan 31 Chekhov's Three Sisters opens at MKhAT to poor reviews
1902 Gorky's Lower Depths opens at MKhAT
1903 2nd Party Congress (Brussels)
Split into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
1904 General strike in Tbilisi and Baku
1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War
1905
January 22

October 17
1905 REVOLUTION: General Strike
Bloody Sunday
October Manifesto
Potemkin Mutiny
3rd Party Congress
Constitutional Democrats (Kadets) Program
1906

April
4th Party Congress
First Duma
First Constitution (Fundamental Law)
1906-1911 The Stolypin | Land Reforms
1907 Second Duma
5th Party Congress
Emergence of Triple Entente (France, Britain, Russia) against Triple Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy)
Third Duma
1908 Trotsky becomes editor of Pravda in Vienna
1909 May 19 First performance of Diaghilev's Ballet russe
1910
November 7
Igor Stravinsky's Firebird scandalizes Paris
Leo Tolstoy dies at Astapovo station
1911-1913 Balkan Wars
1912
April 4
Fourth Duma
Lena gold field massacre (from which Lenin took his pseudonym)
1913 Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring
1914 World War I begins
St. Petersburg renamed 'Petrograd'
1916 Dec 16 Murder of Rasputin by Felix | Yusupov et al.
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