Russian History


 

THE SOVIET PERIOD, 1917-1991

 

1917 

1917 REVOLUTIONS (February 23/March 8)

   February

Duma convened

Bread riots and strikes in Petrograd

   March 15

Abdication of Nicholas II in favor of GP Mikhail

GP Mikhail transfers power to Provisional Government under Lvov

Dual Power (dvoevlastie) begins

Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies Order No. 1

Kamenev and Stalin return from Siberia

   April

Finland Station: Lenin returns to Russia

Lenin's April Theses

   May

Miliukov's note to Allies

Coalition Provisional Government 

   June

Election of Constituent Assembly set for September 30

   July

Russian offensive against Germans

Uprising against Provisional Government

Prince Lvov resigns; Kerensky becomes premier

6th Party Congress 

   August

Kerensky becomes dictator

Constituent Assembly election postponed to November 25

   Sept 9-14

Kornilov uprising 

   November

OCTOBER | REVOLUTION (October 25/November 7)

Patriarchate re-established

Constituent Assembly elections begin

   December

Armistice negotiations at Brest-Litovsk December 20

Establishment of Cheka

Left SRs enter coalition with Bolsheviks

 

1918-1924 

VLADIMIR ILYICH LENIN

 

1918

 

   January

Constituent Assembly is dissolved

   February

Separation of church and state

Russia moves to the Gregorian Calendar (not the Church)

   March 3

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (KOI8)

7th Party Congress

British land at Murmansk

   April

Japanese land at Vladivostok 

   June

Committees of the Village Poor established

Nationalization of industry

   July
   July 10

Intervention | begins

Lenin (RFSFR) Constitution ratified 

   July 17

Murder of Tsar Nicholas II and his family in Ekaterinburg

   August

American troops land in Vladivostok 

   September

American troops land at Archangelsk

   November

End of World War I

Soviets repudiate Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (copy)

French troops land at Odessa 

   December

British troops land at Batum


1919

Founding of the Comintern

   March

Kolchak launches drive against Bolsheviks

8th Party Congress 

   April

French withdraw from Odessa

   June
   June 28

Height of Denikin advance

Treaty of Versailles 

   October

Allies withdraw from Murmansk and Archangel


1920 January

Kolchak shot by Bolsheviks

Allied blockade lifted

   March

9th Party Congress 

   April

Wrangel replaces Denikin

   November

Wrangel evacuates Crimea

Civil War ends in Russia


1921 

NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP) BEGINS

Kronstadt Uprising

10th Party Congress: orders for Purge

Treaty of Riga with Poland; establishment of Curzon Line


1922

Cheka replaced by OGPU

   April

Stalin becomes secretary general

Treaty of Rapallo with Germany

11th Party Congress

Lenin's first stroke

The USSR declared

   Dec. 23

Lenin begins his Testament 


1923

12th Party Congress 

   January 4

Lenin finishes his Testament

Lenin's second stroke

1924

Lenin's death (January 21)

13th Party Congress

USSR constitution ratified

Petrograd renamed 'Leningrad'

USSR recognized by Great Britain, France, Italy

1925

14th Party Congress Trotsky removed as war commissar

1926

Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev ousted from Politburo

1927

15th Party Congress:

Trotsky, Zinoviev and followers expelled from Party; Stalin takes control

Communist revolt in China crushed


1927-1953

JOSIF VISSARIONOVICH STALIN 


1928

First Five-Year Plan adopted

1929

Trotsky deported

Nikolai Bukharin ousted from Politburo

Collectivization and industrialization begins

1930

16th Party Congress

Stalin's "Dizzy with Success" speech

1932-1933

Ukrainian | Famine

1932

Dissolution of Russian Association of Proletarian Writers

   January 21

Non-Agression Pact with Finland

Prokofiev returns from abroad

First mention of "socialist realism"

Soviet/French non-aggression pact

1933

USA recognizes USSR

Ivan Bunin wins Russia's first Nobel Prize in literature

1933-1937

Second Five-Year Plan 

1934

17th Party Congress

Birobidzhan becomes autonomous Jewish state

First Congress of Russian Writers

Soviet Union joins League of Nations

Kirov assassinated; beginning of Stalinist purges

1935

Collective farm statute

Campaign of Stakhanovism begins

1936

Gorky dies

   December

Stalin constitution promulgated

Show trials of Zinoviev, Kamenev, et al. prosecuted by Vishinsky

1937

Trial of Radek, et al.

Much of Soviet army command executed

1937-41

Stalinshchina (Stalin Terror)

1938

Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky

Trial of Bukharin, et al.

1938-1941

Third Five-Year Plan 

1939

18th Party Congress

Minimum labor days set for collective farms

Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

World War II: Germans invade Poland

Soviet occupation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania

Stalin named 'Man of the Year' by TIME

Soviet attacks on Poland and Finland

1940

Sholokhov completes Silent Don

End of war with Finland Baltic states are annexed

Bessarabia are annexed

Trotsky is murdered in Mexico

1941

GERMAN INVASION OF USSR (June 22)

Stalin names himself head of government

   September 1

Mass evacuation of Volga Germans

1942

Churchill visits Moscow

Lend-Lease in full operation

Stalin named 'Man of the Year' by TIME again

1943

German surrender at Stalingrad

Dissolution of the Comintern

Sergius becomes Patriarch October

The Moscow Conference

November Teheran Conference

1944 May 11

Crimean Tatars banished to Siberia   

1945 February

Yalta Conference

Vienna and Berlin taken by Russian troops    July 17-Aug 2

Potsdam | Conference Deutsch

   July 24

US successfully test an atom bomb

Eisenstein's Ivan the Terrible, Part I, wins Stalin Prize 1946First elections to the Supreme Soviet since 1937

Churchill's "Sinews of Peace" Speech at Westminster College
   Now hear it!  

Zhdanov attacks Zoshchenko and Soviet composers

Eisenstein's Ivan the Terrible, Part II, withdrawn from theaters

First session of the UN opens

Communist government in Bulgaria

1946-1950

Fourth Five-Year Plan 

1947

Rationing abolished

Cominform established

1948

Czechoslovakia joins Soviet bloc

1948

Berlin blockade

Yugoslavia expelled from Cominform

1949

USSR tests atomic bomb

1950

USSR and China sign alliance treaty

1951-1955

Fifth Five-Year Plan 

1952

19th Party Congress 

1953

DEATH OF STALIN

Malenkov, premier; Khrushchev, first secretary

Beria executed

1954
   April 26

Ehrenburg's The Thaw initiates 'The Thaw'

Crimea transferred to Ukraine

1954-1956

Khrushchev's 'Virgin Land' program

1955

Malenkov replaced by Bulganin

Summit Conference in Geneva

Warsaw Pact established

1956

20th Party Congress

Khrushchev's "Secret Speech"; Lenin's Testament read

Party condemns "cult of the individual"    November

Hungarian revolution quashed

Molotov resigns

1957

Malenkov, Kaganovich and Molotov ousted

Decentralization of economic organization

First Sputnik launched

USSR successfully tests ICBM

1958

Bulganin resigns

US-USSR cultural exchange agreement

US edition of Doctor Zhivago

Boris Pasternak awarded Nobel Prize for literature

1958-1964

NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV 

1959

Mikoyan, Kozlov, and Khrushchev visit USA

Khrushchev launches his corn campaign

21st Party Congress 

1959-1965

Seven-Year Plan

"Anti-Party Group" denounced

1960
   May

Khrushchev at UN Assembly in New York

Boris Pasternak dies

1961
   Apr 12


Yurii Gagarin becomes the first man in space    August

The Berlin Wall is built October

22nd Party Congress

New Party program and rules

Stalin's remains removed from Lenin Mausoleum

Berlin Wall is built

1962

Solzhenitsyn's One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich 

October

Cuban Missile Crisis

1963

Russo-Chinese split deepens

Central Committee Conference on Ideology

Ehrenburg, Evtushenko and others attacked for non-conformity

US-USSR "hotline" established    August

US/USSR/Britain sign nuclear test ban treaty

Founding of the Taganka Theater

1964

Joseph Brodsky trial (February-March)    October

KHRUSHCHEV OUSTED; BREZHNEV FIRST SECRETARY

Kosygin become Premier

1964-1982 

LEONID ILYICH BREZHNEV

1965

Demonstrations in Moscow against US air-raids in North Vietnam

Mikhail Sholokhov wins Nobel Prize in literature

1966

23rd Party Congress    February

Andrei Sinyavski & Yulii Daniel trial for publishing abroad

1966-1970

Eighth Five-Year Plan

1967

Outer Space Treaty

Svetlana Alliluyeva, Stalin's daughter, defects

1967

Andropov becomes head of the KGB

Fiftieth anniversary of Bolshevik Revolution

1968

Moscow-NY commercial airline service (PanAm and Aeroflot)

Prague Spring; Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia

Dissident (inakomyshlyashchii) movement begins

1969

Preliminary round of SALT talks

1970

US-Soviet Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

US-USSR cultural exchange

Centenary of Lenin's birth

Alexander Solzhenitsyn wins Nobel Prize for literature

1970-1971

SALT talks

1971

Khrushchev dies    February

Solzhenitsyn deported from USSR

24th Party Congress 

1971-1975

Ninth Five-Year Plan

1972

Nixon in Moscow for summit

SALT Treaty signed

Restrictions on Jewish emigration; Jackson-Vanik amendment

SALT II negotiations begin

Fiftieth anniversary of USSR

1974

Solzhenitsyn expelled to West Germany

Third Moscow summit

1975

Apollo-Soyuz Mission

Sakharov wins Nobel Peace Prize; visa to attend ceremonies denied

1976

25th Party Congress 

1976-1981

Tenth Five-Year Plan 

1977

Dissidents Ginzburg, Rudenko, Orlov, Shcharinskii arrested

Master and Margarita staged at Taganka Theater

   November

Brezhnev Constitution ratified

1978

Soviet UN Undersecretary for Political and Security Council Affairs defects to US    June 8

Solzhenytsin's Harvard speech

1979

Gorbachev is made a candidate member of Politburo    December

Soviets invade Afghanistan 

1980

US grain embargo to protest invasion of Afghanistan

Sakharov exiled

64 countries boycott Moscow Summer Olympics to protest Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

Gorbachev promoted to full member of Politburo

Death of Vladimir Vysotsky 

1981

26th Party Congress 

1981-1985

Eleventh Five-Year Plan 

1982

Andropov promoted to Secretariat Brezhnev dies; Andropov becomes General Secretary

1983-1984 

YURI ANDROPOV


1983 Sept. 5

Korean airliner shot down by Soviets


1984-1985 

KONSTANTIN CHERNENKO


1984

Andropov dies; Chernenko becomes General Secretary

Soviets withdraw from Summer Olympics in Los Angeles

Tarkovsky emigrates to Italy

1985

Chernenko dies; Gorbachev becomes General Secretary

Anti-alcoholism program ('dry law') initiated

Gorbachev calls for economic reforms (Perestroika)


1985-1991 

MIKHAIL GORBACHEV


1986

27th Party Congress    April 26 Chernobyl disaster

US/Soviet summit in Reykjavik (Reagan and Gorbachev)

Gorbachev's anticorruption campaign

1986-1990

Twelfth Five-Year Plan 

1987

Sakharov freed from 7 years of exile in Gorky

Moscow showing of Abuladze's Repentance

Mikhail Gorbachev TIME "Man of the Year"

Josef Brodsky awarded Nobel Prize for literature

Mathias Rust, 19 years old, lands his Cessna 172 in Red Square; Air-defense commander Koldunov removed

Gorbachev sets 1991 as deadline for overhaul of the economy

Soviet diplomats go to Israel for first official visit since 1967

US/Soviet summit in Washington

1988

Ethnic unrest in the Baltic republics

   February 20

Nagorno-Karabakh soviet declares the region under Armenian control

   February 27

Azerbaijani massacre of 32 Armenians in Sumgait suburb of Baku

   March

Nina Andreeva's anti-Perestroika letter published in Sovetskaja Rossija 

   May 15

Soviets begin pullout from Afghanistan

US/Soviet summit in Moscow

Trial of Churbanov, Brezhnev's son-in-law, for bribery and extortion

   June 28

Second Party Conference. New Congress of Peoples' Deputies with elected seats announced

Kremlin sends troops to Nagorno-Karabakh

Gorbachev becomes president

Gorbachev's speech at U.N. announcing significant cuts in Soviet military strength

Armenian earthquake, over 150,000 killed

Doctor Zhivago first published in Russia


1989

 

   January

Gorbachev takes control of Nagorno-Karabakh

   February 1

Yuri Levada's questionnaire in Lit gazeta

Completion of Soviet pullout of Afghanistan

   March 26

First multi-candidate elections; several uncontested candidates defeated,

Yeltsin and Sakharov overwhelmingly win seats in the Congress of People's Deputies

   April 6

Protesters in Georgia demand independence, Soviet troops move in

Purging of "dead souls" in the Central Committee

Soviet-Chinese summit in Beijing    May

Coal miners strike in Siberia, Ukraine, Central Asia

Demonstrations in Baltics for independence

RUKH (Popular Movement of the Ukraine) demands independence

May 25-June 9

I. Congress of Peoples Deputies of the USSR begins political reforms

   July

Coal miners strike in Vorkutka, Karaganda, Siberia and the Ukraine

   September 4

Azerbaijani Popular Front imposes blockade on 85% of freight entering Armenia

   October

Armenia and Azerbaijani engaged in civil war

   November

The Berlin | Wall comes down

   Dec. 14

Andrei Sakharov dies


1990

Mikhail Gorbachev awarded Nobel Prize for peace

   February

Russia's first McDonald's opens on Gorky Street

   March

Elections of regional deputies of the Russian Federation

Lithuania declares independence

   June

28th Party Congress

Yeltsin announces resignation from CP

Supreme Soviet passes law to lift censorship from the press

   June 12 

I Congress of Peoples Deputies of RSFSR passes "Declaration of State Sovereignty of Russia" (Independence Day)

   November
   Nov 19

Law on Peasant Farms allows kolkhozniks to own private farms

CFE Treaty signed in Paris



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