BIS (Bureau of Industry and Security): The U.S. Department of Commerce agency that administers and enforces the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”).
CCL (Commerce Control List): Categorized list of products, software, and technology subject to controls under the Export Administration Regulations (EAR Part 774), also referred to as the “dual-use” list.
Controlled Technology: “Technology,” “Technical Data,” or “Technical Assistance” (see definitions) which is controlled for release or export to the country or nationality in question. In terms of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”), Controlled Technology generally relates to items that appear on the United States Munitions List. Under the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”), the analysis involves a review of the Commerce Control List (“CCL”) and a subsequent determination as to whether the technology is controlled for the country/nationality in question.
DDTC (Directorate of Defense Trade Controls): The U.S. Department of State agency responsible for the administration of the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”).
Deemed Export: The release of technology or technical data to a foreign national in the U.S. Such a release is treated as an export to the foreign national’s home country.
Defense Article: Any item subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”) and which is listed on the U.S. Munitions List.
Defense Service: Furnishing of assistance, including training, to a foreign person in the design, development, engineering, manufacture, production, assembly, testing, repair, maintenance, modification, operation, demilitarization, destruction, processing or use of a Defense Article.
Dual-Use Item: Items that have both a civil and potential military/proliferation application. Dual use categories include, but are not limited to, electronics, telecommunications, chemicals, navigation, sensors/lasers, information security, and materials processing.
EAR (Export Administration Regulations): Regulations administered by the Bureau of Industry and Security (“BIS”) that control the export and re-export of Dual Use items.
EAR99: Commercial items that are not specifically listed on the Commerce Control List (CCL) are designated as EAR99. These items generally consist of low level technology, consumer goods, etc.
ECCN (Export Control Classification Number): An alphanumeric designation (e.g., 3A001, 5A002) used in the Commerce Control List (“CCL”) to classify items for export control purposes. An ECCN categorizes items based on the nature of the product, i.e., type of commodity, technology or software and its respective technical parameters.
Export: Transporting or transferring any item, technology or technical data to a foreign country or releasing technology or technical data to a foreign national in the United States (“Deemed Export”).
Foreign National/Foreign Person: A “foreign national” is anyone who is not a U.S. citizen, U.S. national, lawful permanent resident (i.e., aliens with a “green card”), or person granted asylum or refugee status. Under export controls, anyone holding a temporary visa (e.g., H-1B, J-1, etc.) is considered a foreign national.
Fundamental Research: Research in science, engineering, or mathematics, the results of which ordinarily are published and shared broadly within the research community, and for which the researchers have not accepted restrictions for proprietary or national security reasons. For more information, see the Exemptions to Export Controls section on this site.
ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations): Regulations administered by the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (“DDTC”) that control the export, re-export and temporary import of items that generally have inherent military applications.
OFAC (Office of Foreign Assets Control): Agency in the U.S. Treasury Department that administers U.S. economic sanctions regulations.
Publication or Dissemination Restrictions: Any prohibition against publication or any other dissemination of information generated during the course of research activities. For example, such a restriction could take the form of a confidentiality or nondisclosure agreement, where the University agrees to withhold publishing or disseminating certain information. Provisions allowing for the review of results during a short (30 to 60-day) review period to review for patent rights may be acceptable. For more information, see the Exemptions to Export Controls section on this site.
Publicly Available Information: Information that is generally accessible to the interested public in any form and, therefore, not subject to the Export Administration Regulations (“EAR”). Includes technology and software that are already published or will be published; arise during, or result from fundamental research; are educational; or are included in certain patent applications. For more information, see the Exemptions to Export Controls section on this site.
Restricted Parties: Individuals and entities with whom the University and its employees may be prohibited by law from exporting to or engaging in controlled transactions with, or otherwise may require a license or other government approval to do so.
Restricted Research: University research, development, or testing subject to (i) Publication or Dissemination Restrictions, (ii) access and dissemination controls, (iii) federal funding with contract-specific national security restrictions, (iv) the acceptance of third party controlled items or information, or (v) providing access to, or Defense Services on, a Defense Article. Restricted Research is subject to the Export Administration Regulations ("EAR") or International Traffic in Arms Regulations ("ITAR") , and a license or other government approval may be required for foreign national participation.
Sanctioned Countries: Countries designated by the Office of Foreign Assets Control ("OFAC") as having limited or comprehensive trade sanctions imposed by the U.S. for reasons of anti-terrorism, non-proliferation, narcotics trafficking, or other reasons.
Technology: Specific information necessary for the development, production, or use of a product. The information takes the form of “Technical Data” or “Technical Assistance”.
Technical Data: Technology in the form of blueprints, plans, diagrams, models, formulae, tables, engineering designs and specifications, manuals and instructions written or recorded on other media or devices such as disk, tape, or read-only memories.
Use Technology: Specific information necessary for the operation, installation (including on-site installation), maintenance (checking), repair, overhaul and refurbishing of an item.
USML (United States Munitions List): A categories list of Defense Articles and Defense Services controlled under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (“ITAR”).