• Ph.D., Geology, 1993, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
  • M. S., Geology, VPI & SU, July, 1989
  • B. S., Geology, VPI & SU, 1987
  • A. B., Latin Education, UNC-Chapel Hill, 1981

Research Interests

  • Alkalinity and acidity measurement and theory in mine drainage
  • Municipal solid waste ash characterization and alteration
  • Fe(II) oxidation and iron and aluminum precipitation rates in acid mine drainage
  • Mine drainage sediments for use as pigment
  • Acid precipitation and interactions with geology
  • Relating field kinetics to laboratory results
  • Acid Mine Drainage Pictures
  • Acid Mine Drainage Treatment
  • Marcellus Shale natural gas drilling water-rock interaction


  • GEOL 103 Physical and Environmental Geology
  • GEOL 205 Introduction to Geochemistry - mainly physical inorganic chemistry
  • GEOL 230 Environmental GIS
  • CAPS 499 24 Acid Mine Drainage Treatment - a Capstone Course for students in several disciplines
  • FN090 33 King Coal - an Environmental College Foundation Seminar
  • BIOL/ENST/GEOL/UNIV 299 - a team-taught introduction to Watershed System Science
  • FOUN 098 55 - Gas Shale: A Pandora's Box?

Selected Publications

Kirby, C. S., and J. D. Rimstidt, 1994, Interaction of municipal solid waste ash with water Environmental Science & Technology, 28, 443-451.

Kirby, C. S., and J. D. Rimstidt, 1993, Mineralogy and surface properties of municipal solid waste ash, Environmental Science & Technology, 27, 652-660.

Kirby, Carl S., and Elder, Jennifer A., 1998, Field determination of Fe2+ oxidation rates in acid mine drainage using a continuously-stirred tank reactor, Applied Geochemistry, 13, 4, 509-520.

Kirby, C. S.; S. M. Decker; N. K. Macander, 1999, Color, chemical and mineralogical composition of sediment from untreated and treated mine drainage: Comparisons to pigment, Environmental Geology, 37, 3, 243-254.

Kirby, C. S.; H. Thomas; G. Southam; R. Donald, 1999, Relative contributions of abiotic and biological factors to Fe(II) oxidation kinetics in acid mine drainage, Applied Geochemistry, 14, 4, 511-530.

Cravotta, C. A. III, and Kirby, C. S., 2004, Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Shamokin Creek Basin, Northumberland and Columbia Counties, Pennsylvania, 1999-2001, US Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report 03-4311.

Kirby, C. S., Cravotta, C.A., III, 2005, Net alkalinity and net acidity in mine drainage 1: Theoretical considerations, Applied Geochemistry, 20, 1920-1940.

Kirby, C. S., Cravotta, C.A., III, 2005, Net alkalinity and net acidity in mine drainage 2: Practical considerations, Applied Geochemistry, 20, 1941-1964.

Kirby, C. S., McInerney, B., Turner, M. D., 2008, Groundtruthing and Potential for Predicting Acid Deposition Impacts in Headwater Streams Using Bedrock Geology, GIS, Angling, and Stream Chemistry, Science of the Total Environment, 393, 249-261.

Kirby, C. S., Dennis, A. and Kahler, A,. 2009, Aeration to degas CO2, increase pH, and increase iron oxidation rates for efficient treatment of net alkaline mine drainage, Applied Geochemistry, 24, 1175-1184.

Rowan, E.L., Engle, M.A., Kirby, C.S., and Kraemer, T.F., 2011, Radium content of oil- and gas-field produced waters in the northern Appalachian Basin (USA)-Summary and discussion of data: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2011-5135, 31 p., (Available online at

Chapman, E.; Capo, R.; Stewart, B.; Kirby, C.; Hammack, R.; Schroeder, K.; Edenborn, H., 2012, Geochemical and strontium isotope characterization of produced waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction, Environ. Sci. Technol., 46(6):3545-53.


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