PERIOD OF KIEVAN RUS' 859-1240

860 Askold & Dir clear the Dnepr and attack Constantinople

THE RURIKOV DYNASTY 862-1613

862 Summoning of Rurik to Novgorod
862-879? RURIK (Hrorekr)
879-913 OLEG (Helgi)
907 Oleg's expedition against Constantinople
911 Oleg's treaty with the Byzantine Empire
913-945 IGOR (Ingvar)
941 Expedition of Igor against Constantinople
945 Igor's treaty with Byzantine Empire
945-962 OLGA (Helga)
957 Olga baptized in Constantinople
962-972 SVIATOSLAV
965-967 Sviatoslav conquers the Khazar cities of Sarkel and Itil
980-1015 ST. VLADIMIR
988 Baptism of Vladimir and conversion of Russia to Christianity (but pagan beliefs continue among folk)
11th century First birch-bark documents Novgorod streets paved with lumber (first in Paris pavement, 1184) Wooden water pipes laid in Novgorod
1016 Russian-Byzantine force destroys Georgius Tzul's Khazaria
1019-1054 YAROSLAV THE WISE
1030 Yaroslav starts first school in Novgorod
1037 Saint Sofia Cathedral begun in Kiev
1045-1057 Building of Saint Sofia in Novgorod
1051 The cave at Peshchersk Lavra settled by Antonius of Chernigov
1054 Schism between Eastern and Western Catholicism
1054-1073 Russkaia Pravda, first Russian law, written
1092?-1125 VLADIMIR MONOMAKH
1095 First election of prince in Novgorod
1116 Primary Chronicle composed
1125-1157 YURI DOLGORUKI (founder of Moscow)
1125-1200 Second version of Russkaia Pravda
1147 Moscow founded by Yuri Dolgoruki (English)
1156 First Kremlin built in Moscow
1157-1176 ANDREI BOGOLJUBSKI
1167 Sadko builds a church in Novgorod
1169 Sack of Kiev by Andrei Bogoliubsky, prince of Vladimir-Suzdal'
1176-1212 VSEVOLOD BIG NEST
1185 Igor Sviatoslavovich of Seversk marches against the Polovetsians
1195 First Novgorod treaty with German towns and Gotland
1196 Novgorod granted right to select prince
1204 4th Crusade captures Constantinople; Latin Empire rules until 1261
1212-1237 YURI II
1223 First Mongol invasion; Russians defeated on the Kalka
1227 Death of Genghis Khan
1237-1242 Mongol conquest of Russia
1237-1246 YAROSLAV II

THE APPANAGE PERIOD, 1240-1480

1240 Victory of Alexander Nevsky over Swedes on the Neva
1242 Battle on the Ice: Nevsky's victory over the Teutonic Knights on Lake Peipus
1253 Founding of Sarai as capital of the Golden Horde
1270 Novgorod treaty with the Hansa
1275 Population of Russia about ten million
1294 First Russian icon which is dated and signed (Novgorod)
1300 Metropolitan of Kiev settles at Vladimir
1326 Final establishment of Metropolitan in Moscow
1337 Foundation of Trinity Monastery in Sergiev Posad
1328-1340 IVAN I MONEY-BAGS (Kalita)
1340-1353 SIMEON THE PROUD
1348 Pskov secures independence from Novgorod Swedish King Magnus marches against Novgorod
1353-1359 IVAN II THE MEEK
1359-1389 DMITRI DONSKOI
1360 Andrei Rublev born (probably)
1362 Kiev taken by Grand Duke of Lithuania, Olgerd
1367-1368 First stone fortifications of Moscow Kremlin
1371-1375 Heresy of Strigol'niks (Shearers) in Novgorod
1378 Feofan the Greek paints first frescoes in Novgorod
1380 Victory of Dmitri Donskoi over the Tatars at Kulikovo Field
1382 Moscow burnt by Tokhtamysh
1389-1425 VASSILY I
1390-1430 Active life of icon painter Andrei Rublev
1395 Defeat of the Golden Horde by Tamerlane
1425-1462 VASSILY II THE DARK
1430-1466 Disintegration of Golden Horde
1436 Foundation of Solovetsky Monastery
1439 Council of Florence Reunion of eastern and western churches
1441 Metropolitan Isidore deposed for accepting Council of Florence
1448 Church of Russia declared autocephalous
1453 Capture of Constantinople by the Ottomans
1462-1505 IVAN III THE GREAT
1471 Campaign of Ivan III against Novgorod Charter of the city of Novgorod
1472 Marriage of Ivan III with Zoe (Sophia), niece of last Byzantine Emperor
1475-1478 Cathedral of Assumption in Kremlin built by Fieravanti
1476-1478 Visit to Moscow of Ambrosio Contarini, first foreigner to write about Moscow
1478 Incoporation of Novgorod into Muscovy
1480 Unsuccessful campaign of Golden Horde against Ivan III
1480 END OF MUSCOVITE DEPENDENCY ON MONGOLS
1481-1502 Active career of icon and fresco painter Dionysius
1485 Cathedral of Annunciation built by masons from Pskov
1485-1516 Building of the new Kremlin in Moscow
1487-1491 Palace of Facets built by Marco Ruffo & Pietro Antonio Solari.
1488 Uprising in Novgorod
1494 End of the Hansa in Novgorod
1497 Sudebnik: Law code of Ivan III
1503 Church Council: Victory of the Josephites over the nonposessors Heresy of Judaizers condemned
1505-1533 VASSILY III
1505-1509 Cathedral of Archangel Michael built by Alevisio Nuovi of Milan
1510 Incoporation of Pskov into Muscovy
1517-1519 Printing of first books in Russian in Prague
1524 Novodevichy Convent founded by Vasilli III
1525 Maxim the Greek condemned by the Church Council
1529-1560 Construction of churches at Dyakovo, Ostrovo and Kolomenskoe
1533-1538 REGENCY OF YELENA GLINSKAYA 1533-1538
1538-1547 PERIOD OF DISPUTED REGENCY (BELSKYS AND SHUISKYS)
1547-1584 IVAN IV (THE TERRIBLE)
1547 Twenty-two Russian saints canonized Novgorod and Pskov icon painters ordered to Moscow after great fire
1550-1555 Construction of the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed celebrating the capture of Asktrakhan (1556)
1550-1700 134 books translated into Russian
1551 Council of the Hundred Chapters (Stoglav)
1552 Capture of Kazan
1553 Opening of the White Sea route by Willoghby and Chancellor
1555 Granting of charter to The Russia Company (England)
1556 Asktrakhan defeated
1558 Stroganovs granted land on Kama River
1558-1583 Livonian war against Poland and Sweden, for possession of Baltic
1560's Edition of Domostroi, a book of principles of family life
1564 First book printed in Moscow Kurbsky flees to Lithuania
1565-1572 Ivan the Terrible's reign of terror: the oprichnina
1566 First Zemskii Sobor (Consultative Land Assembly)
1570 Ivan the Terrible's pogrom in Novgorod
1571 Crimean Tartars burn Moscow
1571-1600 Fortification of southern frontier Beginning of Don, Zaporozhian, and Ural Cossacks
1580's Boris Godunov sends 18 Russians to study abroad (none return)
1582 Yermak and the beginning of the conquest of Siberia Privilege of St. George's Day (Iur'ev Den'), November 26, abolished
1584-1598 FEDOR I
1585 Foundation of Archangelsk

THE TIME OF TROUBLES, 1598-1613

1598-1605 BORIS GODUNOV Lord Protector
1588 Giles Fletcher in Moscow
1589 Creation of Moscow Patriarchate
1590's Rostov becomes the seat of Metropolitan
1591 Dmitri tsarevich killed in Uglich
1601-1603 Famine Erection of the bell tower of Ivan the Great
1606-1607 Revolt of Bolotnikov
1610-1612 Poles occupy Moscow
1612-1613 Minin and Pozharsky lead popular militia against Poles in Moscow
1611-1617 Swedes occupy Novgorod

THE ROMANOV DYNASTY, 1613-1917

1613 Election of Michael Romanov as tsar by Zemskii Sobor
1613-1645 MICHAEL FEDOROVICH ROMANOV
1618 Peace with Sweden Loss of any outlet to Baltic
1634-1638 Two visits of Adam Olearius to Moscow
1636 Patriarch orders all musical instruments burned
1645-1676 ALEXIS MIKHAILOVICH ROMANOV
1648-1649 Up-risings in Moscow and other towns
1649 Ulozhenie: Law Code of Tsar Alexis Abolition of English trading privileges
1650's Moscow population about 200,000
1650 Patriarch standardizes the five-domed church
1652 Foreigners in Moscow required to live in Nemetskaia Sloboda
1653 Last full meeting of Zemskii Sobor
1654 Church Council adopts Nikon's reforms
1654 BEGINNING OF THE SCHISM (Raskol) Union of Ukraine with Muscovy
1660's Moscow linked with Amsterdam and Berlin by regular postal service
1664 Grigorii Kotoshikhin flees to Sweden
1666 Church Council deposes Patriarch Nikon
1667 Cession to Moscovy of Kiev, Little Russia, and Smolensk
1670-1671 Revolt of Stenka Razin
1671 Avvakum writes his Life in prison
1672 Russian embassies sent to all major European states
1672 Artakserova deistva, first play given at Moscow court
1674 Synopsis, first textbook of Russian history, appears
1676 Theater opens at Preobrazhenskoe
1676-1682 FEDOR III ROMANOV
1682 Peter assumes throne, with Sophia as regent
1684 Sophia institutes formal persecution of Old Believers by decree
1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk with China
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