THE SOVIET PERIOD, 1917-1991

1917 1917 REVOLUTIONS (February 23/March 8)
February Duma convened
Bread riots and strikes in Petrograd
March 15 Abdication of Nicholas II in favor of GP Mikhail
GP Mikhail transfers power to Provisional Government under Lvov
Dual Power (dvoevlastie) begins
Petrograd Soviet of Workers' Deputies Order No. 1
Kamenev and Stalin return from Siberia
April Finland Station: Lenin returns to Russia
Lenin's April Theses
May Miliukov's note to Allies
Coalition Provisional Government
June Election of Constituent Assembly set for September 30
July Russian offensive against Germans
Uprising against Provisional Government
Prince Lvov resigns; Kerensky becomes premier
6th Party Congress
August Kerensky becomes dictator
Constituent Assembly election postponed to November 25
Sept 9-14 Kornilov uprising
November OCTOBER | REVOLUTION (October 25/November 7)
Patriarchate re-established
Constituent Assembly elections begin
December Armistice negotiations at Brest-Litovsk December 20
Establishment of Cheka
Left SRs enter coalition with Bolsheviks
1918-1924 VLADIMIR ILYICH LENIN
1918
January Constituent Assembly is dissolved
February Separation of church and state
Russia moves to the Gregorian Calendar (not the Church)
March 3 Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (KOI8)
7th Party Congress
British land at Murmansk
April Japanese land at Vladivostok
June Committees of the Village Poor established
Nationalization of industry
July
July 10
Intervention | begins
Lenin (RFSFR) Constitution ratified
July 17 Murder of Tsar Nicholas II and his family in Ekaterinburg
August American troops land in Vladivostok
September American troops land at Archangelsk
November End of World War I
Soviets repudiate Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (copy)
French troops land at Odessa
December British troops land at Batum
1919 Founding of the Comintern
March Kolchak launches drive against Bolsheviks
8th Party Congress
April French withdraw from Odessa
June
June 28
Height of Denikin advance
Treaty of Versailles
October Allies withdraw from Murmansk and Archangel
1920 January Kolchak shot by Bolsheviks
Allied blockade lifted
March 9th Party Congress
April Wrangel replaces Denikin
November Wrangel evacuates Crimea
Civil War ends in Russia
1921 NEW ECONOMIC POLICY (NEP) BEGINS
Kronstadt Uprising
10th Party Congress: orders for Purge
Treaty of Riga with Poland; establishment of Curzon Line
1922 Cheka replaced by OGPU
April Stalin becomes secretary general
Treaty of Rapallo with Germany
11th Party Congress
Lenin's first stroke
The USSR declared
Dec. 23 Lenin begins his Testament
1923 12th Party Congress
January 4 Lenin finishes his Testament
Lenin's second stroke
1924 Lenin's death (January 21)
13th Party Congress
USSR constitution ratified
Petrograd renamed 'Leningrad'
USSR recognized by Great Britain, France, Italy
1925 14th Party Congress Trotsky removed as war commissar
1926 Trotsky, Zinoviev, Kamenev ousted from Politburo
1927 15th Party Congress:
Trotsky, Zinoviev and followers expelled from Party; Stalin takes control
Communist revolt in China crushed
1927-1953 JOSIF VISSARIONOVICH STALIN
1928 First Five-Year Plan adopted
1929 Trotsky deported
Nikolai Bukharin ousted from Politburo
Collectivization and industrialization begins
1930 16th Party Congress
Stalin's "Dizzy with Success" speech
1932-1933 Ukrainian | Famine
1932 Dissolution of Russian Association of Proletarian Writers
January 21 Non-Agression Pact with Finland
Prokofiev returns from abroad
First mention of "socialist realism"
Soviet/French non-aggression pact
1933 USA recognizes USSR
Ivan Bunin wins Russia's first Nobel Prize in literature
1933-1937 Second Five-Year Plan
1934 17th Party Congress
Birobidzhan becomes autonomous Jewish state
First Congress of Russian Writers
Soviet Union joins League of Nations
Kirov assassinated; beginning of Stalinist purges
1935 Collective farm statute
Campaign of Stakhanovism begins
1936 Gorky dies
December Stalin constitution promulgated
Show trials of Zinoviev, Kamenev, et al. prosecuted by Vishinsky
1937 Trial of Radek, et al.
Much of Soviet army command executed
1937-41 Stalinshchina (Stalin Terror)
1938 Eisenstein's Alexander Nevsky
Trial of Bukharin, et al.
1938-1941 Third Five-Year Plan
1939 18th Party Congress
Minimum labor days set for collective farms
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
World War II: Germans invade Poland
Soviet occupation of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Stalin named 'Man of the Year' by TIME
Soviet attacks on Poland and Finland
1940 Sholokhov completes Silent Don
End of war with Finland Baltic states are annexed
Bessarabia are annexed
Trotsky is murdered in Mexico
1941 GERMAN INVASION OF USSR (June 22)
Stalin names himself head of government
September 1 Mass evacuation of Volga Germans
1942 Churchill visits Moscow
Lend-Lease in full operation
Stalin named 'Man of the Year' by TIME again
1943 German surrender at Stalingrad
Dissolution of the Comintern
Sergius becomes Patriarch October
The Moscow Conference
November Teheran Conference
1944 May 11 Crimean Tatars banished to Siberia
1945 February Yalta Conference
Vienna and Berlin taken by Russian troops July 17-Aug 2
Potsdam | Conference Deutsch
July 24 US successfully test an atom bomb
Eisenstein's Ivan the Terrible, Part I, wins Stalin Prize 1946First elections to the Supreme Soviet since 1937
Churchill's "Sinews of Peace" Speech at Westminster College
Now hear it!
Zhdanov attacks Zoshchenko and Soviet composers
Eisenstein's Ivan the Terrible, Part II, withdrawn from theaters
First session of the UN opens
Communist government in Bulgaria
1946-1950 Fourth Five-Year Plan
1947 Rationing abolished
Cominform established
1948 Czechoslovakia joins Soviet bloc
1948 Berlin blockade
Yugoslavia expelled from Cominform
1949 USSR tests atomic bomb
1950 USSR and China sign alliance treaty
1951-1955 Fifth Five-Year Plan
1952 19th Party Congress
1953 DEATH OF STALIN
Malenkov, premier; Khrushchev, first secretary
Beria executed
1954
April 26
Ehrenburg's The Thaw initiates 'The Thaw'
Crimea transferred to Ukraine
1954-1956 Khrushchev's 'Virgin Land' program
1955 Malenkov replaced by Bulganin
Summit Conference in Geneva
Warsaw Pact established
1956 20th Party Congress
Khrushchev's "Secret Speech"; Lenin's Testament read
Party condemns "cult of the individual" November
Hungarian revolution quashed
Molotov resigns
1957 Malenkov, Kaganovich and Molotov ousted
Decentralization of economic organization
First Sputnik launched
USSR successfully tests ICBM
1958 Bulganin resigns
US-USSR cultural exchange agreement
US edition of Doctor Zhivago
Boris Pasternak awarded Nobel Prize for literature
1958-1964 NIKITA KHRUSHCHEV
1959 Mikoyan, Kozlov, and Khrushchev visit USA
Khrushchev launches his corn campaign
21st Party Congress
1959-1965 Seven-Year Plan
"Anti-Party Group" denounced
1960
May
Khrushchev at UN Assembly in New York
Boris Pasternak dies
1961
Apr 12

Yurii Gagarin becomes the first man in space August
The Berlin Wall is built October
22nd Party Congress
New Party program and rules
Stalin's remains removed from Lenin Mausoleum
Berlin Wall is built
1962 Solzhenitsyn's One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
October Cuban Missile Crisis
1963 Russo-Chinese split deepens
Central Committee Conference on Ideology
Ehrenburg, Evtushenko and others attacked for non-conformity
US-USSR "hotline" established August
US/USSR/Britain sign nuclear test ban treaty
Founding of the Taganka Theater
1964 Joseph Brodsky trial (February-March) October
KHRUSHCHEV OUSTED; BREZHNEV FIRST SECRETARY
Kosygin become Premier
1964-1982 LEONID ILYICH BREZHNEV
1965 Demonstrations in Moscow against US air-raids in North Vietnam
Mikhail Sholokhov wins Nobel Prize in literature
1966 23rd Party Congress February
Andrei Sinyavski & Yulii Daniel trial for publishing abroad
1966-1970 Eighth Five-Year Plan
1967 Outer Space Treaty
Svetlana Alliluyeva, Stalin's daughter, defects
1967 Andropov becomes head of the KGB
Fiftieth anniversary of Bolshevik Revolution
1968 Moscow-NY commercial airline service (PanAm and Aeroflot)
Prague Spring; Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
Dissident (inakomyshlyashchii) movement begins
1969 Preliminary round of SALT talks
1970 US-Soviet Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
US-USSR cultural exchange
Centenary of Lenin's birth
Alexander Solzhenitsyn wins Nobel Prize for literature
1970-1971 SALT talks
1971 Khrushchev dies February
Solzhenitsyn deported from USSR
24th Party Congress
1971-1975 Ninth Five-Year Plan
1972 Nixon in Moscow for summit
SALT Treaty signed
Restrictions on Jewish emigration; Jackson-Vanik amendment
SALT II negotiations begin
Fiftieth anniversary of USSR
1974 Solzhenitsyn expelled to West Germany
Third Moscow summit
1975 Apollo-Soyuz Mission
Sakharov wins Nobel Peace Prize; visa to attend ceremonies denied
1976 25th Party Congress
1976-1981 Tenth Five-Year Plan
1977 Dissidents Ginzburg, Rudenko, Orlov, Shcharinskii arrested
Master and Margarita staged at Taganka Theater
November Brezhnev Constitution ratified
1978 Soviet UN Undersecretary for Political and Security Council Affairs defects to US June 8
Solzhenytsin's Harvard speech
1979 Gorbachev is made a candidate member of Politburo December
Soviets invade Afghanistan
1980 US grain embargo to protest invasion of Afghanistan
Sakharov exiled
64 countries boycott Moscow Summer Olympics to protest Soviet invasion of Afghanistan
Gorbachev promoted to full member of Politburo
Death of Vladimir Vysotsky
1981 26th Party Congress
1981-1985 Eleventh Five-Year Plan
1982 Andropov promoted to Secretariat Brezhnev dies; Andropov becomes General Secretary
1983-1984 YURI ANDROPOV
1983 Sept. 5 Korean airliner shot down by Soviets
1984-1985 KONSTANTIN CHERNENKO
1984 Andropov dies; Chernenko becomes General Secretary
Soviets withdraw from Summer Olympics in Los Angeles
Tarkovsky emigrates to Italy
1985 Chernenko dies; Gorbachev becomes General Secretary
Anti-alcoholism program ('dry law') initiated
Gorbachev calls for economic reforms (Perestroika)
1985-1991 MIKHAIL GORBACHEV
1986 27th Party Congress April 26 Chernobyl disaster
US/Soviet summit in Reykjavik (Reagan and Gorbachev)
Gorbachev's anticorruption campaign
1986-1990 Twelfth Five-Year Plan
1987 Sakharov freed from 7 years of exile in Gorky
Moscow showing of Abuladze's Repentance
Mikhail Gorbachev TIME "Man of the Year"
Josef Brodsky awarded Nobel Prize for literature
Mathias Rust, 19 years old, lands his Cessna 172 in Red Square; Air-defense commander Koldunov removed
Gorbachev sets 1991 as deadline for overhaul of the economy
Soviet diplomats go to Israel for first official visit since 1967
US/Soviet summit in Washington
1988 Ethnic unrest in the Baltic republics
February 20 Nagorno-Karabakh soviet declares the region under Armenian control
February 27 Azerbaijani massacre of 32 Armenians in Sumgait suburb of Baku
March Nina Andreeva's anti-Perestroika letter published in Sovetskaja Rossija
May 15 Soviets begin pullout from Afghanistan
US/Soviet summit in Moscow
Trial of Churbanov, Brezhnev's son-in-law, for bribery and extortion
June 28 Second Party Conference. New Congress of Peoples' Deputies with elected seats announced
Kremlin sends troops to Nagorno-Karabakh
Gorbachev becomes president
Gorbachev's speech at U.N. announcing significant cuts in Soviet military strength
Armenian earthquake, over 150,000 killed
Doctor Zhivago first published in Russia
1989
January Gorbachev takes control of Nagorno-Karabakh
February 1 Yuri Levada's questionnaire in Lit gazeta
Completion of Soviet pullout of Afghanistan
March 26 First multi-candidate elections; several uncontested candidates defeated,
Yeltsin and Sakharov overwhelmingly win seats in the Congress of People's Deputies
April 6 Protesters in Georgia demand independence, Soviet troops move in
Purging of "dead souls" in the Central Committee
Soviet-Chinese summit in Beijing May
Coal miners strike in Siberia, Ukraine, Central Asia
Demonstrations in Baltics for independence
RUKH (Popular Movement of the Ukraine) demands independence
May 25-June 9 I. Congress of Peoples Deputies of the USSR begins political reforms
July Coal miners strike in Vorkutka, Karaganda, Siberia and the Ukraine
September 4 Azerbaijani Popular Front imposes blockade on 85% of freight entering Armenia
October Armenia and Azerbaijani engaged in civil war
November The Berlin | Wall comes down
Dec. 14 Andrei Sakharov dies
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev awarded Nobel Prize for peace
February Russia's first McDonald's opens on Gorky Street
March Elections of regional deputies of the Russian Federation
Lithuania declares independence
June 28th Party Congress
Yeltsin announces resignation from CP
Supreme Soviet passes law to lift censorship from the press
June 12 I Congress of Peoples Deputies of RSFSR passes "Declaration of State Sovereignty of Russia" (Independence Day)
November
Nov 19
Law on Peasant Farms allows kolkhozniks to own private farms
CFE Treaty signed in Paris
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