Yemen, one of the oldest and most propserous civilizations of the Near East, traded throughout the Mediterranean regions, India, and Abyssinia. Around 630 CE, Yemen became part of the Arab-Islamic Empire. The language of the present-day Socialist Republic of Yemen is Arabic.

Hebrew, the language of ancient Israel, is classified as a Canaanite linguistic sub-grouping. Hebrew texts are read back to front; pages on the right before pages on the left.

According to Jewish law, Shabbat is the traditional time of rest, celebrated with the symbolic lighting of two candles eighteen minutes before sunset on Friday afternoon.

Yemenite manuscript in bound volume, Hebrew text on paper; 42 complete folio gatherings with 6 additional folios. Kabalistic [referring to secret, mystical interpretations of the scriptions] and other special prayers for Shabbat, with commentaries in micrographic script throughout; black and red lettering; the prayers are "Tikkun Hanefesh," or "Repair of the Soul," and "Tikkun Chazot," or "Midnight Lament," circa 1700s CE.

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