Russian History



 
THE IMPERIAL PERIOD, 1689-1917
 
 
1689-1725PETER I, THE GREAT

1695
  • Beginning of the Russian navy
  • 1696 July 18
  • Surrender of Azov to Peter I
  • 1697
  • Conquest of Kamchatka
  • 1697-1698
  • Peter's visit to the West
  • Revolt of Streltsy crushed
  • 1700
  • Suspension of the patriarchate
  • 1700-1721
  • Great Northern War with Sweden
  • 1703
  • Founding of St. Petersburg
  • Russia's first newspaper established: Vedomosti o voennykh i inykh delakh
  • May
  • Peter & Paul Fortress founded
  • 1704
  • Peter I takes Narva from Charles XII of Sweden
  • 1707-1708
  • Bulavin uprising
  • 1708
  • Establishment of the guberniias (provinces)
  • 1709
  • Russian victory over Charles XII of Sweden at Poltava
  • 1710
  • First census (household and tax)
  • 1711
  • First press in St. Petersburg
  • November 19
  • Mikhail Lomonosov born
  • 1713
  • Transfer of capital to St. Petersburg
  • 1716-1717
  • Jean-Baptiste Le Blond begins Petrodvorets (Peterhof)
  • 1718
  • Institution of poll tax
  • Foundation of administrative colleges
  • Tsarevich Alexis killed
  • 1720
  • Pososhkov's book On Poverty and Wealth
  • 1721
  • Holy Synod replaces patriarchate
  • Treaty of Nystad: Livonia, Estonia, Karelia, Ingria acquired from Sweden
  • Peter assumes the title of emperor
  • Organization of state postal service
  • 1722
  • Table of Ranks established
  • 1725
  • Death of Peter the Great
  • Foundation of the Academy of Sciences

  • 1725-1727CATHERINE I SKAVRONSKA

    1727-1730PETER II ROMANOV

    1728
  • Sankt-Peterburgskie vedomosti first published
  • 1725-1729
  • Arctic expedition of Vitus Bering (second, 1732-1741)
  • 1730
  • Struggle over the terms of the succession

  • 1730-1740ANNA ROMANOVA

    1741
  • Lomonosov appointed to the Academy of Sciences
  • Vitus Bering discovers the Aleutian Islands and Alaska

  • 1740-1741IVAN VI ROMANOV

    1741-1762ELIZABETH ROMANOVA

    1746
  • Ban of purchase of serfs by non-nobles
  • 1750
  • First professional Russian theater founded in Yaroslavl by Fyodor Volkov
  • 1753
  • Decree abolishing internal customs
  • 1754-1762
  • Bartolomeo Rastrelli builds the Winter Palace
  • 1755
  • Lomonosov founds Moscow University
  • 1760's
  • Fonvizin's comedies The Brigadier, The General and The Minor
  • 1760
  • Landowners granted right to exile serfs to Siberia

  • 1761-1762PETER III ROMANOV

    1762
  • Peter III issues Manifesto on the Rights of the Nobility
  • Peter III murdered

  • 1762-1796CATHERINE II THE GREAT VON ANHALT-ZERBST

    1764-67
  • Founding of German colonies along the Lower Volga River
  • 1764
  • Final secularization of Church lands
  • 1765
  • Establishment of the Free Economic Society
  • 1767
  • Peasants forbidden to submit complaints against their landowners
  • 1767-1768
  • Legislative Commission
  • 1769-1794
  • Catherine the Great publishes satirical journals
  • Novikov's journals The Drone and The Painter
  • 1772
  • First partition of Poland--Belorussia annexed to Russia
  • 1773-1775
  • Revolt of Pugachev
  • 1774
  • Treaty of Kuchuk-Kainardji
  • 1775
  • Liquidation of the Zaporozhian Cossacks
  • 1780's
  • Englishman Cameron builds at Tsarskoe Selo
  • 1781-1786
  • Full absorption of the Ukraine into Russian Empire
  • 1782-1785
  • Giacomo Quarenghi builds the Hermitage
  • 1783
  • Incorporation of the Crimea
  • Private printing presses permitted
  • 1784
  • Gregory Shelekov establishes the first colony in Alaska
  • 1785 April 21
  • Charter of the Nobility and gentry an estate
  • 1790
  • Radishchev's Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow
  • 1793
  • Second Partition of Poland
  • 1795
  • Third Partition of Poland
  • 1796
  • Death of Catherine the Great
  • The Alexander Palace is completed

  • 1796-1801PAUL I ROMANOV

    1797
  • Establishment of the three-day barshchina
  • 1799
  • Russo-American Trading Company formed
  • Suvorov's campaign in northern Italy and Switzerland
  • June 6
  • Alexander S. Pushkin born
  • 1801
  • Murder of Paul I

  • 1801-1825 ALEXANDER I ROMANOV

    1801
  • Acquisition of eastern Georgia
  • Sale of serfs without land prohibited
  • 1802
  • Formation of ministries
  • 1806
  • Conquest of Daghestan and Baku
  • 1806-1815
  • The new Admiralty built by Zakharov
  • 1807-1811
  • Reforms of Speransky
  • 1809
  • Krylov's Fables
  • Annexation of Finland
  • 1812 June 24
  • Napoleon's invasion of Russia
  •   August 26
  • Battle of Borodino
  •   Sept 14
  • Napoleon enters Moscow
  •   October 19
  • Napoleon departs Moscow
  • 1813-1814
  • Alexander's pursuit of Napoleon to Paris
  • 1815-1825
  • Ascendancy of Arakcheev
  • 1816-1819
  • Abolition of serfdom in Baltic provinces
  • 1817
  • Transfer of the Makariev Fair to Nizhnii Novgorod
  • 1817-1857
  • Montferrand builds St. Isaac's Cathedral
  • 1818
  • Karamzin's History of the Russian State
  • 1819
  • University of St. Petersburg founded
  • 1819-1829
  • The Italian Rossi builds the General Staff Building on Palace Square
  • 1821
  • F. M. Dostoevsky born October 30 in Moscow

  • 1825-1855NICHOLAS I ROMANOV

    1825
  • Decembrist Uprising Griboedov's comedy Woe from Wit
  • 1830
  • Briullov's painting Last Day of Pompeii
  • Alexander Pushkin completes Eugene Onegin
  • Mathematician Lobachevsky publishes first work
  • 1830-1831
  • Polish rebellion
  • 1832
  • Uvarov's three principles enunciated: autocracy, orthodoxy, nationality
  • Alexandrine Theater in St. Petersburg opened
  • 1833
  • Code of Laws
  • 1834
  • Kiev University founded
  • 1836 Nov 27
  • Glinka's opera Life for the Tsar (Ivan Susanin)
  • Gogol's Inspector General
  • Chadaaev's Philosophical Letters
  • 1837
  • A. S. Pushkin shot in a dual with D'Anthes, dies January 29
  • 1838
  • First Russian railroad--St. Petersburg to Tsarskoe Selo
  • Gubernskie vedomosti first published by order of the tsar
  • 1838-1847
  • Belinsky works on the Notes of the Fatherland
  • 1840
  • Lermontov's Hero of Our Time
  • 1841
  • Ban against the sale of peasants individually
  • 1842
  • Glinka's opera Ruslan and Ludmila
  • Gogol's Dead Souls
  • 1846
      May 30
  • Abolition of Corn Laws in England; increase of Russian grain exports
  • Peter Carl Faberge born in St. Petersburg
  • 1847
  • Herzen leaves Russia forever
  • Belinsky's Letter to Gogol
  • 1849
  • Dostoevsky sentenced to forced labor in Siberia
  • Russian intervention in Hungary
  • 1851 Nov 13
  • St. Petersburg-Moscow railway opened
  • 1852
  • Turgenev's Sportsman's Notebook
  • 1853
  • Ostrovsky's first play produced
  • 1853-1856
  • Crimean War
  • 1855
  • Death of Nicholas I

  • 1855-1881ALEXANDER II ROMANOV

    1856
  • George | Plekhanov born
  • 1857
  • First issue of Herzen's Kolokol (The Bell)
  • Alexander Ivanov's painting Christ's Appearance to the People
  • 1858-1860
  • Acquisition from China of Amur and Maritime provinces
  • 1859
  • Surrender of Shamil; conquest of Caucasus completed
  • Goncharov's Oblomov
  • 1860
  • Founding of Vladivostok
  • 1860-1873
  • First railway boom
  • 1861 Feb 19
  • Emancipation of the serfs
  • 1862
  • St. Petersburg Conservatory founded; Anton Rubinstein, director
  • The Mighty Five (Balakierev, Cui, Borodin, Rimsky-Korsakov, Mussorgsky) announce intentions to create a school of true Russian music
  • Turgenev's Fathers and Sons
  • 1863
  • Polish rebellion
  • Artists Co-operative Society (Peredvizhniki) founded
  • Chernyshevsky's What Is To Be Done?
  • 1863-1865
  • Law (courts) and education reform Zemstvo instituted
  • 1864-1885
  • Conquest of central Asia
  • 1866
  • Moscow Conservatory founded; Tchaikovsky becomes a professor
  • Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment is published
  • 1867 March 30
  • Alaska sold to the United States of America
  • 1869
  • Tolstoy's War and Peace is published
  • 1870
    April 22
  • Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions (Peredvizhniks)
  • Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) is born
  • Mendeleyev's Principles of Chemistry
  • 1872
  • Russian translation of Marx's Capital
  • Carl Faberge takes over his father's jewelry business
  • 1873
  • Beginning of the movement To the People (V narod)
  • 1874
  • Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov
  • 1876
  • Land and Freedom Party
  • 1877
  • Tchaikovsky's Swan Lake
  • 1877-1878
    March 3
    June 13
  • War with Turkey
  • Treaty of San Stefano
  • Congress of Berlin Begins
  • 1878
  • Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto takes Paris by storm
  • Tchaikovsky's opera Eugene Onegin
  • Tolstoy's Anna Karenina
  • 1879
  • People's Will Party and Black Partition established
  • 1880
  • Dostoevsky's Brothers Karamazov
  • 1881 March 1
  • Assassination of Alexander II

  • 1881-1894ALEXANDER III ROMANOV

    1884
  • Reactionary regulations for universities
  • 1888
  • Rimsky-Korsakov's Scheherazade
  • 1890
  • Borodin's opera Prince Igor
  • Tchaikovsky's Sleeping Beauty
  • 1891
  • Beginning of the Trans-Siberian railway
  • 1891-1893
  • Making of the Franco-Russian alliance
  • 1892
  • Tret'iakov donates his art collection to the city of Moscow
  • 1892-1903
  • Witte as minister of communications, finance and commerce

  • 1894-1917NICHOLAS II ROMANOV

    1896
  • Disastrous production of Chekhov's The Seagull in St. Petersburg
  • 1897 Jan 28
  • First all-Russian census counts 128,907,692 people
  • 1898
  • Moscow Art Theater founded, produces Chekhov's Sea Gull
  • 1st Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Party (Minsk)
  • Occupation of Port Arthur
  • 1900
  • Boxer Rebellion; Russia occupies Manchuria
  • 1901 Jan 31
  • Chekhov's Three Sisters opens at MKhAT to poor reviews
  • 1902
  • Gorky's Lower Depths opens at MKhAT
  • 1903
  • 2nd Party Congress (Brussels)
  • Split into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks
  • 1904
  • General strike in Tbilisi and Baku
  • 1904-1905
  • Russo-Japanese War
  • 1905
    January 22

    October 17
  • 1905 REVOLUTION: General Strike
  • Bloody Sunday
  • October Manifesto
  • Potemkin Mutiny
  • 3rd Party Congress
  • Constitutional Democrats (Kadets) Program
  • 1906

    April
  • 4th Party Congress
  • First Duma
  • First Constitution (Fundamental Law)
  • 1906-1911
  • The Stolypin | Land Reforms
  • 1907
  • Second Duma
  • 5th Party Congress
  • Emergence of Triple Entente (France, Britain, Russia) against Triple Alliance (Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy)
  • Third Duma
  • 1908
  • Trotsky becomes editor of Pravda in Vienna
  • 1909 May 19
  • First performance of Diaghilev's Ballet russe
  • 1910
    November 7
  • Igor Stravinsky's Firebird scandalizes Paris
  • Leo Tolstoy dies at Astapovo station
  • 1911-1913
  • Balkan Wars
  • 1912
    April 4
  • Fourth Duma
  • Lena gold field massacre (from which Lenin took his pseudonym)
  • 1913
  • Stravinsky's The Rite of Spring
  • 1914
  • World War I begins
  • St. Petersburg renamed 'Petrograd'
  • 1916 Dec 16
  • Murder of Rasputin by Felix | Yusupov et al.


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