The two most common allegations of academic irresponsibility are inappropriate collaboration and plagiarism. Here are some ways in which to help prevent these from happening in your classes.
Preventing Inappropriate Collaboration
More and more faculty members have seen the value of collaborative learning and have encouraged students to work together. Parallel to the rise in collaborative learning activities, we have encountered a rise in the number of academic misconduct cases where students are accused of improper collaboration.
The problem is that what is perfectly acceptable and even encouraged in one class is considered illegal in another class. And even within the same course, different levels of collaboration are permitted on different assignments. This is very confusing to students, so your expectations need to be made very explicit. Students who are accused of unauthorized collaboration often report that they got mixed or fuzzy messages – or no message at all – about the kinds and extent of collaboration that the faculty member authorized on a particular assignment. They say that they were encouraged all semester to work together and assumed that meant they could talk about ideas for papers and take-home exams. They have a hard time understanding where to draw the line between talking in general about concepts and talking in greater detail about what ideas to include in their paper and what examples to use to support them.
It’s a good idea to put a statement on your syllabus and on each assignment hand-out that makes explicit what kinds of collaboration you allow and what is not permitted and then to discuss it with the students to make sure they know the difference.
There is an excellent discussion of this issue on the UC-Davis web site: "Unauthorized Collaboration: What Students Need To Know"
Preventing and Detecting Plagiarism
Plagiarism is a particularly thorny problem on college campuses. Part of the problem is that students in high schools here and abroad do not learn in detail what plagiarism is and are not held to the same standards that are generally applied at the college level. Some of them bring with them practices such as paraphrasing or patchwriting (piecing together ideas and parts of sentences from many different sources without citing) that were not scrutinized in the same way they are here. Others find themselves racing against deadlines and take the easy way out in order to get a paper in on time. Most do not see plagiarism as an ethical issue in the same way that faculty do.
Educating our students about plagiarism is the best way to prevent it.
All first-year students must take an interactive on-line academic responsibility orientation before they arrive on campus, but these are lessons that must be taught more than once in order for the students to internalize them.
Describing the different forms of plagiarism is a good start. Having students study and analyze examples of plagiarized text is even better (see several of the web sites listed below). If we do a thorough job educating our students, the incidence of cases involving plagiarism will drop significantly and it is much less likely that a student who commits plagiarism will do so out of ignorance or carelessness.
At Bucknell, we subscribe to the TurnItIn anti-plagiarism service that allows us to check student essays for originality. TurnItIn is integrated with Moodle and has both a "before-the-fact" and "after-the-fact" mechanism for checking student essays for originality
Before the Fact
If you want to discourage students from submitting work that has been copied from other sources without proper citation or credit, you can create a "TurnItin Assignment" in your Moodle course. Students in the course submit their essays via that assignment, and all student submissions are checked against a database consisting of publicly available sources, other work submitted by Bucknell students, and essays submitted by students at other universities that license TurnItIn. TurnItIn produces an "originality score" that indicates what percentage of the submitted document appears to copy language from other sources. Since sentences that students actually quoted (and attributed correctly) can appear to be matches, a matching score in the low teens is not necessarily problematic, but matching scores higher than that would warrant closer analysis. TurnItIn provides specific comparisons between the language in the student essay and the language in the pre-existing source, allowing faculty members to determine if inappropriate copying has occurred.
After the Fact
Although we recommend the "before-the-fact" approach, if faculty members don't want all student submissions for a particular assignment to be checked for originality, the faculty member can use an "after-the-fact" approach, submitting an individual student essay that arouses suspicion to TurnItIn. An electronic copy of the essay, preferably a Word file or a PDF file with a text layer added (via OCR), is necessary. To submit an individual student essay (or essays), faculty members need to create a TurnItIn assignment in a Moodle course, hide the assignment from students, and then submit the suspicious student essay(s) to TurnItIn via the hidden assignment. The submissions will generate an originality report within 30 minutes after the essay is submitted, which the faculty member can review.
On-line resources at Bucknell
- Online Resources for Writers provided by the Bucknell Writing Center
On-line resources from other universities
- The University of California at Davis has an excellent statement entitled "Why Integrity Matters" that will help students understand why we take academic honesty so seriously.
- Georgetown University’s Honor Council web site offers very good definitions and examples of plagiarism and paraphrasing and challenges students’ assumption that everyone does it and it’s not a big deal.
- Dartmouth University has created a handbook for students entitled "Sources: Their Use and Acknowledgement."
- Indiana University’s Writing Tutorial Services also has very good information on plagiarism and paraphrasing.
- Alex Aiken, a computer scientist at Berkeley, introduces Moss, a free system for detecting software plagiarism.
- The University of Alberta (Canada) library has a good guide for faculty on ways to prevent plagiarism and links to a wealth of other information.
Print resources (* indicates it’s available in the Writing Center)
- *Bean, John C. Engaging Ideas: The Professor’s Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom, San Francisco:Jossey-Bass, 2001. (Of special interest: Chapter 12, "Encouraging Engagement and Inquiry in Research Papers." 197-214.)
- Bliwise, Robert J. "A Matter of Honor," Duke Magazine, May-June 2001, pp. 3-7, 42-44.
- Harris, Robert A. The Plagiarism Handbook: Strategies for Preventing, Detecting, and Dealing with Plagiarism. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 2001.
- _______. Using Sources Effectively: Strengthening Your Writing and Avoiding Plagiarism. Los Angeles: Pyrczak Publishing, 2002.
- *Howard, Rebecca Moore, "Forget About Policing Plagiarism. Just Teach." Chronicle of Higher Education. November 16, 2001. B24.
- *_______. Standing in the Shadow of Giants: Plagiarists, Authors, Collaborators. Stamford, CT: Ablex, 1999.
- *Price, Margaret. "Beyond ‘Gotcha!’: Situating Plagiarism in Policy and Pedagogy." CCCC: The Journal of the Conference on College Composition and Communication. 54.1 (2002): 88-115.
- *Whiteneck, Peggy. "What to Do with a Thought Thief." Community College Week. 14.24 (2002): 4-6. (Available on InfoTrac)