- Role of Alternative Energy Sources: Natural Gas Power Technology Assessment
A broad, comprehensive overview of the natural gas power sector, including discussion of power plant performance and efficiency, environmental life cycle analysis (LCA), and cost analysis. The increasing share of shale gas (growth from 14 to 24 percent of the overall U.S. natural gas supply from 2009 to 2010) is also discussed. Important environmental considerations mentioned include greenhouse gas emissions and water withdrawals.
- Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Shale Gas, Natural Gas, Coal, and Petroleum
From abstract: The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions... see full abstract
- Understanding the Marcellus Shale Supply Chain: Katz Graduate School of Business Working Paper
Abstract: Understanding the Marcellus Shale Supply Chain examines the overall supply chain as it currently exists for the Marcellus Shale development, principally located in and around Pennsylvania. This study seeks to fill a critical information gap on the nature of the supply chain, derived from the drilling and extraction of natural gas from Marcellus Shale geologic deposits. The study first looks at the macroeconomics of the natural gas market, the major components of the supply chain, and an analysis of supplier characteristics, resources, and best practices. Our analysis is based on extensive field research and interviews, as well as information gathering from a number of publicly available sources.
- A Thematic Analysis of Local Respondent's Perceptions of Barnett Shale Energy Development
From abstract: Researchers have found that the economic, social, and environmental impacts of energy development vary with both the type and location of development. Previous studies have highlighted impacts associated with the conventional energy development that occurred in the western United States in the 1970s and 1980s... see full text.
- Natural Gas Resources, Reserves and Production: Unconventional, Less - Conventional and Conventional
From Abstract: The Natural Gas Year-In-Review 2009 (U.S. Energy Information Administration, July 2010) highlights six recent developments in the U.S. natural gas industry, several of which established all-time records:
Gas consumption fell 2% from 2008, to 62.6 Bcf/day;
Net imports recorded a 15-year low of 2,677 Bcf;
Natural gas storage reached 3,833 Bcf, the highest on record... see full abstract.
- Will Natural Gas Fuel America in the 21st Century?
The author describes the US energy system and the percent of total energy produced by the various fossil fuels and renewable resources. He goes on to describe the main usage of each main energy source in the US. The Author remarks on the unpredictability of the natural gas market which he claims is due to the yearly 30% decline of gas production at each well. He shows the price fluctuations from the past 20 years as well as showing the average annual gas production per well versus the total number of producing wells and the total annual gas production versus the number of new wells drilled. Using these numbers the author claims that the EIA¿s forecast for gas production in the coming years is exaggerated and that it is unlikely to be able to consistently produce the amount of gas needed to replace coal with gas as the main source of electrical generation. The author compares gas versus coal for electrical generation and pushes to replace current coal plants with more efficient ones in addition to making sure that these fossil fuels are used where they will be most efficient and effective.
- Agriculture and Natural Gas
The author discusses the use of natural gas in the agriculture industry, remarking that most gas used in farming is consumed off-site to make nitrogen fertilizer. The use of nitrogen fertilizer in farming has increased in the past 50 years to increase grain production. Also, more nitrogen fertilizer is being imported as opposed to being produced in the United States, causing the environmental burden of drilling and refinement to fall on others. The author states that the use of nitrogen fertilizer depletes the natural nitrogen retention ability of soils, leading to more and continued dependency on fertilizer inputs. The article calls for a reduction in synthetic fertilizer use. While many state that reducing fertilizer use will lower grain production, possibly increasing the risk of mass starvation, the author points to studies that show reduced fertilizer use, in conjunction with more efficient farming techniques, could not only maintain current grain levels but could even increase grain production. This is a supplementary article to the Post Carbon Institute Hughes report, "Will Natural Gas Fuel America in the 21st Century?".
- Methane Contamination of Drinking Water Accompanying Gas-well Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing
This article investigates methane concentrations in well drinking water in the extent of the Marcellus Shale formation. It looks at whether increased methane concentrations are observed within 1 kilometer of a shale-gas well. Higher well water methane concentrations were found in these active gas extraction areas less than 1 km from one or more gas wells. The source of the methane was investigated. The presence of ethane and other higher-chain hydrocarbons as well as the δ13C-CH4 data and δ2H-CH4 data indicate a deeper thermogenic methane source (where the methane was formed by heat and pressure deep in the crust). The putative source comes from a rock formation aged Middle Devonian or older. The well water was tested for deep formation brine contamination but no signs of contamination were found. The authors call for more research and monitoring of water wells to be done to establish a data baseline for the region that will help with monitoring changes or contamination in the future.
- The Future of Natural Gas
From Abstract: The history of global energy use through the 160 years of the western industrial revolution shows a progression of fuel substitution, with one resource being partly or largely displaced by a more efficient, versatile and generally cheaper source. If trends in carbon reduction and hydrogen increase continue, methane should constitute the dominant fuel in the global energy mix, representing a long-term bridge to a non-fossil, probably hydrogen economy. Is this likely? Probably, but not without the substantial uncertainties attendant to any major transition... see full abstract.
- Public Health Concerns of Shale Gas Production
The authors highlight some of the practices and processes of shale gas drilling that might pose a health risk. Not enough research has been done on all aspects of shale gas drilling to know the exact health risks but the authors claim that enough is known to raise a high level of concern for individual and community health. The authors call for drilling to be slowed or stopped to allow adequate research to improve our understanding of the health implications of shale gas drilling. This is a supplementary article to the Post Carbon Institute Hughes report, "Will Natural Gas Fuel America in the 21st Century?".
- The Future of Natural Gas
This lengthy report was compiled by an interdisciplinary panel of scientists and academics primarily affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and the MIT Energy Initiative (MITEI). Basing its assessment on a "carbon-constrained" scenario in which greenhouse gas emissions are priced in the marketplace, the report discusses recommendations for U.S. policy regarding natural gas development. The report states that the environmental impacts of shale development, though large, can be successfully managed, especially with sound regulatory tools. The co-authors also recommend increased funding for research and development on natural gas and improvements to gas distribution (i.e., pipeline) safety programs.
- Effects of development of a natural gas well and associated pipeline on the natural and scientific resources of the Fernow Experimental Forest
The motivation for this report is to provide much-needed published data on the effects of natural gas development on eastern forests, including information on erosion rates, sediment loading, soil and water chemistry, and vegetation loss. This report specifically documents the impacts of natural gas development on a single 1,900-hectare study site, the Fernow Experimental Forest, situated in the Monongahela National Forest, West Virgnia. The time period considered is 2007 (when work was approved) through 2009 (when the pipeline was fully completed). According to this report, some environmental impacts from land clearing and well and pipeline construction were predictable, whereas other impacts were not predicted. For instance, increased presence and activity of white-tailed deer was noted in disturbed areas (e.g., where the pit fluids were land-applied and on the well site in the area of the buried drill pit).
- Natural gas operations from a public health perspective
Summarizes potential health effects of products and chemicals used in natural gas operations. Toxicological categorization of the products and chemicals that are summarized in the article were acquired by obtaining the Material Safety Data Sheets, reports and environmental assessments from different sources, including states and industry.
- Natural gas: Should fracking stop?
This short commentary offers three expert opinions on whether shale gas extraction is desirable. Natural gas extracted from shale comes at too great a cost to the environment, say Robert W. Howarth and Anthony Ingraffea. However, Terry Engelder says fracking is crucial to global economic stability and the economic benefits outweigh the environmental risks.
- Changing Perceptions of United States Natural-Gas Resources as Shown by Successive U.S. Department of the Interior Assessments
From Abstract:Trends in four successive estimates of United States technically recoverable natural gas resources are examined in this report. The effective dates of these assessments were January 1 of 1975, 1980, 1987, and 1994... See Full Text
- Rapid expansion of natural gas development poses a threat to surface waters
Natural gas development is likely to increase ecological impacts to the surrounding forests and waterways.This review article includes data on wells from the Fayetteville (AR, OK) and Marcellus (NY, PA, OH, WV, VA, KY) shale formations, and specifically addresses the issue of well proximity to water resources. The article discusses environmental threats to surface water (such as streams and rivers) from road construction, water withdrawals, sediment runoff, contaminant intrusion and improper wastewater disposal. Impacts on organisms and biological communities are also discussed.
- A Critical Evaluation of Unconventional Gas Recovery from the Marcellus Shale, Northeastern United States
This article discusses the challenges facing natural gas production from Marcellus tight gas shale within the northeastern United States. Those challenges include prospecting, access by drilling, stimulation, and recovery. Prospecting takes into account the viability of the reservoir. Drilling compromises 50% of the cost of the well; horizontal drilling leads to larger productive zones and fewer costs. Stimulation and recovery methods improve gas yields and attempt to reduce environmental impacts. The author discusses those challenges involved in the recovery of gas and the Marcellus in particular.
- Coupling lead isotope ratios and element concentrations to track processes involved in resource extraction from the Marcellus Shale
- The successful development of shale gas resources in the United States
- Analysis of Delaware River Basin Commission Proposed (Article 7) Natural Gas Development Regulations
From Introduction: The project review responsibilities of the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) extend to projects having a substantial effect on the water resources of the Delaware River Basin (Basin). The recent proposed Article 7 regulations seek to expand the project review function of the Commission to include natural gas regulation. In order to better understand this expansion of regulatory authority, an independent review... See Full Text
- Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas
This article gives a rough estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to develop a typical well in the Marcellus Shale: 5500 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions, assuming conservative estimates of the production lifetime of such a well. The article situates this estimate in the context of other fossil fuels such as coal. "Life cycle assessment" refers to the totaled GHG emissions associated with a process from beginning to end. In this article, the life cycle GHG emissions of Marcellus shale natural gas are estimated to be 63 to 75 g CO2e/MJ of gas produced with an average of 68 g CO2e/MJ of gas produced, which is comparable to life cycle emissions associated with imported liquefied natural gas. Natural gas from the Marcellus Shale has generally lower life cycle GHG emissions than coal for production of electricity. The authors acknowledge significant uncertainty in their calculations due to variability in factors such as flaring, construction and transportation.
- Constraining the timing of microbial methane generation in an organic-rich shale using noble gases, Illinois Basin, USA
At least 20% of the world's natural gas originates from methanogens subsisting on organic-rich coals and shales; however in-situ microbial methane production rates are unknown. Methanogens in the Upper Devonian New Albany Shale in the Illinois Basin extract hydrogen from low salinity formation water to form economic quantities of natural gas. Because of this association, constraining the source and timing of groundwater recharge will enable estimation of minimum in-situ metabolic rates. Thirty-four formation water and gas samples were analyzed for stable isotopes (oxygen and hydrogen), chloride, tritium, 14C, and noble gases. Chloride and δ18O spatial patterns reveal a plume of water with low salinity (0.7 to 2154 mM) and δ18O values (− 0.14 to − 7.25‰) penetrating ~ 1 km depth into evapo-concentrated brines parallel to terminal moraines of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, suggesting glacial mediated recharge. However, isotopic mixing trends indicate that the recharge endmember (~− 7‰ δ18O) is higher than the assumed bulk ice sheet value (<−15‰ δ18O), and similar to modern local precipitation (− 7.5 to − 4.5‰ δ18O). Continental paleoprecipitation records reveal that throughout the Pleistocene, δ18O of precipitation in the region ranged from − 10 to − 5‰, suggesting that the dilute groundwater was primarily sourced from paleoprecipitation with minor contributions from glacial meltwater.
- Land Application of Hydrofracturing Fluids Damages a Deciduous Forest Stand in West Virginia
This study examined the effects of land application of about 300,000 liters of hydraulic fracturing fluid on the Fernow Experimental Forest site, West Virginia. Two years after fluid application, 56 percent of the trees in the fluid application area were dead, with American Beech trees suffering particularly high mortality. The study also looked at trends in sodium and chloride concentrations in the soil as well as changes in soil acidity over time. The author is affiliated with USDA Forest Service.
- Problems and Opportunities with Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel
The authors discuss the issue of using natural gas as a transportation fuel, stating that the proposed plan of using liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an internal combustion fuel is the least energy efficient. They compare the efficiency of using LNG as a fuel source to the efficiency of an electric system powered by natural gas generated electricity. The combustion system has an efficiency of about 20 percent while the electric system has an efficiency of about 30-35 percent. They also comment that using natural gas to continue an internal combustion dependency will only hurt the economy in the long run. This is a supplementary article to the Post Carbon Institute Hughes report, "Will Natural Gas Fuel America in the 21st Century?".
- The Marcellus Shale: Resources and Reservations
From Abstract: The Marcellus Shale is an organic-rich, sedimentary rock formation in the Appalachian Basin of the northeastern United States that contains significant quantities of natural gas. Published estimates of the amount of gas that may be recoverable from the Marcellus Shale have been higher than 1.42 trillion cubic meters, or 50 trillion cubic feet. The recovery of commercial quantities of gas from a low-permeability rock like the Marcellus became economically possible with the application of directional drilling technology, which allows horizontal boreholes to penetrate kilometers of rock, combined with staged hydraulic fracturing to create permeable flow paths into the shale... see full abstract.
- Ozone impacts of natural gas development in the Haynesville Shale
From abstract: The Haynesville Shale is a subsurface rock formation located beneath the Northeast Texas/Northwest Louisiana border near Shreveport. This formation is estimated to contain very large recoverable reserves of natural gas, and during the two years since the drilling of the first highly productive wells in 2008, has been the focus of intensive leasing and exploration activity. The development of natural gas resources within the Haynesville Shale is likely to be economically important but may also generate significant emissions of ozone precursors... see full abstract
- Effects of natural gas development on forest ecosystems
From Abstract: In 2004, an energy company leased the privately owned minerals that underlie the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. The Fernow, established in 1934, is dedicated to long-term research. In 2008, a natural gas well was drilled on the Fernow and a pipeline and supporting infrastructure constructed. We describe the impacts of natural gas development... See Full Abstract
- Comments on the Scope of the EPA's Proposed Study of Hydraulic Fracturing
The article shows concern for Ostego County in New York. The area is plagued by gas seepage. It is also in an area desired for Marcellus Shale drilling. The concern is that hydraulic fracturing of the area will increase the gas seepage in the area, contaminating watersheds and endangering the residents.
- Prospects for Geosynthetic Containment Systems at Marcellus Formation Shale-Gas Drilling Projects
The Marcellus Formation is a marine sedimentary rock found in the Northeast. The shale contains a large supply of untapped natural gas and the proximity to high demand markets makes it an attractive target for energy development.
- Water Management Technologies Used By Marcellus Shale Gas Producers
Natural gas is an important energy source to the United States. Traditional production of natural gas used vertical wells but operators are increasingly using new technology to extract gas from sources like gas shales, coal bed methane and tight gas sands.
- Citizens' Guide to Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania
Marcellus Shale is an attractive source for natural gas to decrease Americas dependence on foreign sources. As production has increased in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and West Virginia, residents have begun to express concern over the natural gas extraction. There is a significant impact on the environment from wastewater and surface water from drilling. Production also causes habitat fragmentation and invasive species invasion. This report is to educate residents who are seeking information about Marcellus Shale.
- Summary: U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves 2009: US Department of Energy Report
Here the U.S. Energy Information Agency (EIA) provides 2009 data on proved reserves of United States crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. Each year the U.S. Energy Information Administration surveys approximately 1,200 domestic operators and uses the filed responses to estimate annually the proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids (NGL). Reserves estimates change from year to year as new discoveries are made, existing reserves are produced, and as prices and technologies change.
- Pennsylvania Energy Impacts Assessment. Report 1: Marcellus Shale Natural Gas and Wind
How will energy development affect conservation efforts in Pennsylvania? This study conducted by the Nature Conservancy focuses on just two types of development activities, both of which are expected to experience substantial growth in the near future: Marcellus shale natural gas and wind energy. The study reviews impacts of these energy sources with regard to high-priority conservation areas in Pennsylvania. The impacts detailed are for forest, freshwater, and rare species habitats, but does not include impacts on water withdrawals, water or air quality, or migratory patterns.
- Public Perception of Desalinated Water from Oil and Gas Field Operations: Data from Texas
This is a technical document detailing research on public perception of desalinated water and its safety. Data collected was used to explore issues associated with public perception of desalinated water from oil and gas field operations. The data, collected from two counties in central Texas, show that small percentages of respondents are familiar with the process of desalination and extremely confident that desalinated water could meet human drinking water quality and purity standards. Respondents are more favorably disposed toward the use of desalinated water for purposes other than ingestion by humans or animals. Respondents who are more familiar with desalination technology are more likely than to believe that desalinated oil and gas field water could be safely used.
- Regulation and Permitting of Marcellus Shale Drilling
Regulating Marcellus Shale requires federal, state and local levels of government. Because of the rapid demand to develop natural gas, authorities and agencies are forced to balance long-term concerns with industry demands for expedited drilling permits. Economic concerns and the desire to promote energy independence accelerate this timeline.
- Unconventional Gas Shales: Development, Technology and Policy Issues
An objective and thorough review of unconventional shales prepared by the U.S. Congressional Research Service. Advances in well drilling and reservoir stimulation have increased gas production from unconventional shales that were considered in the past to be locked within impermeable shale. The USGS estimates that 200 trillion cubic feet of natural gas can be recovered from shales. The hydraulic fracturing used to stimulate gas production from shales have stirred environmental concerns over waters consumption and contamination. The saline flowback water pumped back to the surface poses environmental management challenges. Gas shale development takes place on both private and public lands.
- Is New York's Marcellus Shale Too Hot to Handle?
New York State is currently holding an environmental review of natural gas production from Marcellus Shale. This review is in conjunction with the New York Department of Environmental Conservation. The review looks at wastewater from Marcellus Shale hydraulic fracturing and tests for pollutants. The purpose of this review is to look at human health implications arising from natural gas production.
- Emissions from Natural Gas Production in the Barnett Shale Area and Opportunities for Cost-Effective Improvements
Natural gas production is prevelant in the Barnett Shale region of Texas. Natural gas has many environmental benefits over coal as an energy source. Oil and gas production from Barnett Shale can impact air quality and release greenhouse gases. The objective of this study is to develop an emissions inventory and identify cost-effective emission controls.
- Drilling Around the Law
Companies that drill for natural gas are skirting federal law and injecting toxic chemicals, threatening drinking water supplies. These chemicals often contain high levels of carcinogens. These chemicals are injected through hydraulic fracturing.
- Doubts about shale plays: Examples from the Barnett, Fayetteville and Haynesville Shales.
From Abstract: The investment community now believes that as a result of shale gas plays, the United States has almost an inexhaustible natural gas supply. The balance sheets of many of the key operators in shale plays, however, tell a different story, characterized by substantial debt, ongoing asset sales, and low cash reserves. Our analyses indicate that the reserve levels claimed by certain operators and analysts for shale gas plays are difficult to justify by standard decline-curve methods unless production is projected decades beyond any reasonable economic limit... See Full Abstract
- Getting to the nitty of Barnett's gritty; studies shedding shale's secrets
This brief industry article discusses ongoing research efforts by a University of Oklahoma team on the stratigraphic and physical characteristics of the Barnett Shale in the Fort Worth Basin. The study involves systematic mapping and resevoir characterization.
- Accommodating a New Straw in the Water: Extracting Natural Gas From the Marcellus Shale in the Susquehanna River Basin
The Marcellus Shale underlies approximately 72% of the area of the Susquehanna River Basin. The Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) is charged with managing water resources in the Susquehanna River Basin and has authority over water withdrawals in the basin. Concerns over water withdrawal in regards to the Marcellus Shale, as stated by the article, are focused not on quantity, but rather the location and timing of withdrawals and on their impacts on smaller order streams. The SRBC has made projections regarding the impact of Marcellus Shale extraction on aquatic life and the basin as a whole. Such effects include but are not limited to: water contamination, excessive lowering of water levels, and causing permanent loss of aquifer capacity. This source concludes that while the cumulative impact of water consumption for gas extraction is significant, this demand can be accommodated given mitigation standards currently in place.
- Marcellus Shale Workforce Needs Assessment
From Abstract: The purpose of the Marcellus Shale Workforce Needs Assessment was to examine the expanding workforce of the natural gas industry currently engaged in developing the Marcellus Shale region and to determine the education and training needs required to support this expanding workforce. This assessment was created by the Marcellus Shale Education & Training Center (MSETC), which was formed to serve as a primary workforce development resource for the natural gas industry... see full text.
- Haynesville vs. Barnett; is my shale better than your shale?
A short industry piece comparing the maturity (a term referring to the type of hydrocarbons found in shale, which can be assessed with isotope analysis) of the Haynesville and Barnett shales. Leakage rates and permeability are also discussed.
- A study of the effects of well and fracture design in a typical Marcellus shale well
From the abstract: The problem with typical Marcellus shale wells is the lack of information that has been accumulated and the amount of information that is commercially available to the public.... Through reservoir simulation, the Marcellus could be studied to find effects of these parameters. The objective of this study is to compare and contrast the gas production in vertical wells.... See full abstract
- Compositional variety complicates processing plans for US shale gas
- Got a light, shaler?
- A review of the potential effects of coal bed natural gas development activities on fish assemblages of the Powder River geologic basin
From the abstract: Coal bed natural gas (CBNG) development in the Powder River geologic basin (PRGB) may alter water quality, quantity, or aquatic habitats. CBNG product water is generally higher than surface waters in dissolved sodium and bicarbonate and sometimes exceeds toxicity levels for fathead minnows and daphnids. Montana and Wyoming water quality standards do not account for differential ion toxicity; toxicity data for most fishes of the PRGB are lacking, and there are minimal data available on composition of CBNG product water. One field study suggests that CBNG may limit fish distribution. See full abstract
- Geoecological Risk Management for Stable Development of Gas Industry
From Abstract: Paper describes methodological approaches and case studies of quantitative assessment of environmental risks caused by the impact of gas industry facilities. The proposed technology is based on system analysis used together with the baselines of risk assessment and critical loads methodologies. The study is aimed at the development of methods to manage environmental risks in gas industry in order to provide medium-term and long-term environmental safety and sustainable development of the industry... See Full Text
- The Haynesville Play: A New Opportunity to Prove the Strategic Value of Natural Gas in Peak Oil Mitigation
From Abstract: ... According to the Hirsch Report, mitigation of a liquid fuels shortage without serious repercussions requires twenty years. However, it is likely that the world will encounter such a shortfall within two years. Thus, mitigation steps need to be implemented immediately. There will be no single solution for this problem; the solution path needs to follow what has sometimes been referred to as the all of the above plan. One short-term, partial mitigation step could be the widespread utilization of natural gas vehicles. Natural gas offers the only current alternative to gasoline and diesel as transportation fuel. And, thanks to the Haynesville, Marcellus, Fayetteville, and Barnett shale gas plays, natural gas is available in plentiful supplies... see full abstract.
- Geologic controls and reservoir characterization of the Bradley Brook Field; Madison County, New York
In this study, the effects of the Oswego Sandstone subcrop located below the Oreida Sandstone are determined. The best natural gas wells in Bradley Brook field in Madison County, New York State contain gas from the Oreida Sandstone and are found along the faults that bind the Oswego Sandstone. Two faults were proposed based on geophysical well logs and 2-D seismic data. Oswego Sandstone, unlike the Oreida Sandstone, is not affected by water saturation and porosity because its faults control those factors. So, the Oswego Sandstone acts like a carrier bed for the movement of gas into the Oneida Sandstone, providing evidence on why the best wells are found along the fault bound Oswego Sandstone subcrop.
- The Economic Impact of Marcellus Shale in Northeastern Pennsylvania
In this report, the Joint Urban Studies Center (JUSC) examines increased business activity and population growth in northeastern Pennsylvania due to increased natural gas production and industry employment. This report also looks at natural gas plays in other U.S. regions, including Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas region (Denton County) and the Fayetteville Shale area in Arkansas (Faulkner and White Counties). In the case studies discussed, communities experienced economic growth through significant employment and revenue increases. The report outlines the potential cash flow of typical Pennsylvania wells and potential royalties a landowner may receive.
- Marcellus Shale Exploration and Farmland Preservation in Pennsylvania
The recent boom in drilling for natural gas will have an effect on the farmland and land trusts within the Marcellus Shale region. Preserved land will feel pressured to permit drilling if the concentration of natural gas is large enough. This paper will discuss the itnersection of drilling and farmland preservation.
- Drilling Down: Protecting Western Communities from the Health and Environmental Effects of Oil and Gas Production
This report explains the relationship between oil and gas production and their negative impacts on the Rocky Mountain region's human health, air, water, and land. Also mentioned are possible simple solutions to the problems posed by oil and gas pollution such as the widely accepted "reduce, reuse, recycle" concept.
- Open-Hole Completion Ion System Enables Multi-Stage Fracturing and Stimulation Along Horizontal Wellbores
Horizontal drilling and improved technology has allowed for a more comprehensive exploitation of natural gas from deep unconventional reservoirs. Multi-stage fracturing, which allows for more rapid cumulative gas extraction, has grown in popularity over the years. This article details a horizontal drilling method aimed at decreasing well construction time and speeding production. Cementing and/or lining the "open-hole" well is no longer needed, reducing costs. According to this source, more than 600 pre-assembled systems (called "StackFRAC") have been successfully installed in horizontal open-hole wells in various types of shale formations.
- Natural Gas Compressor Stations on the Interstate Pipeline Network: Developments Since 1996
This report looks at the use of natural gas pipeline compressor stations on the interstate natural gas pipeline network that serves the lower 48 states. It examines the compression facilities added over the past 10 years and how the expansions have supported pipeline capacity growth intended to meet the increasing demand for natural gas.
- Assessment of Appalachian Basin Oil and Gas Resources: Devonian Shale--Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System
This report covers the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)'s recently completed assessment of the technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in the Appalachian Basin Province. The assessment was based on six major petroleum systems in ten states. The Devonian Shale- Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System, which extends from New York to Tennessee, was divided into ten assessment units. In this report, the probability of the assessment amount for oil, gas, natural gas in TPS are recorded and discussed.
- Assessment of Undiscovered Natural Gas Resources in Devonian Black Shales, Appalachian Basin, Eastern U.S.A.
This is a collection of figures showing undiscovered continuous hydrocarbon resources of the Devonian shale. The images were created by USGS as part of its Appalachian Basin assessment. The assessed Devonian shale constitutes the distal deposits of the Catskill delta from New York to West Virginia, Ohio, and eastern Kentucky. The Devonian shale was divided into four assessment units: the Northwestern Ohio Shale, Greater Big Sandy, Devonian siltstone and shale, and the Marcellus Shale. Together, they contain 12.2 TCFG and 159 MMBNGL at the statistical mean. The assessment units were defined by the net thickness of radioactive black shale, thermal maturity, and stratigraphy.
- Meeting the Nation's Natural Gas Needs: Industry and Government Cooperation Needed
From Abstract: Natural gas supply and demand, unlike that for crude oil, is controlled by domestic and sometimes, regional market forces. Currently, natural gas provides 25% of our total energy needs. United States produces one-fourth and consumes one-third of the world’s daily supply... see full abstract.
- Genetic and temporal relations between formation waters and biogenic methane - Upper Devonian Antrim Shale, Michigan Basin, USA
From Abstract: Controversy remains regarding how well geochemical criteria can distinguish microbial from thermogenic methane. Natural gas in most conventional deposits has migrated from a source rock to a reservoir, rarely remaining associated with the original or cogenetic formation waters. We investigated an unusual gas reservoir, the Late Devonian Antrim Shale, in which large volumes of variably saline water are coproduced with gas... see full abstract.
- How Unconventional Gas Prospers Without Tax Incentives
From Abstract: It was widely believed and sometimes too loudly stated that the development of unconventional natural gas (coalbed methane, gas shales, and tight gas) would die once U.S. Sec. 29 credits stopped. Quieter voices countered, and hoped, that technology advances would keep these large but difficult to produce gas resources alive and maybe even healthy. Sec. 29 tax credits for new unconventional gas development stopped at the end of 1992... see full abstract.
- The demand for natural Gas: A survey of price and income elasticities
From Abstract: My purpose has been to survey and review price and income elasticities of the demand for natural gas. The surveyed studies are classified by demand type, where the functional forms, estimation techniques, data types, estimated periods and concerned countries or regions are indicated... See Full Abstract
- Evaluating system for ground water contamination hazards due to gas-well drilling on the glaciated Appalachian Plateau
- Subsurface Stratigraphy and Gas Production of the Devonian Shales in West Virginia
This is a technical report assembled by the West Virginia State Geological Survey complete with detailed bibliography and figures. This work focuses on Devonian Shale present in the western third of West Virginia. Natural gas is known to exist in this shale and has been extracted from shallow, low volume wells nearby in so-called Brown shales. Production is controlled by the presence of fractures that are mapped heavily. These wells are marginally economically viable at costs existing in the late 1970's. The best area for production may be where the Devonian Shales overlie a large fault called Rome Trough.
- Horn River Basin (Shale Gas): A Primer of Challenges and Solutions to Development
Located in Northeast British Columbia, Canada, the Horn River Basin is a remote but significant unconventional Devonian Shale natural gas resource currently undergoing the early stages of development. This development-focused report identifies technical and economic challenges of the resource and outlines ways to reduce risk and help overcome the inherent challenges.
- Three Current Natural Gas Financial Issues
This brief discusses three financial issues related to hydraulic fracturing (hydro-fracking). The first points out that people falsely think payments made to landowners are not taxable. The second debunks the thought that spending lease bonuses on farm equipment will reduce income tax. The last brings up the fact that social clubs lose their special income tax exemption when they sign a gas lease.
- Shale Plays and Lower Natural Gas Prices: A Time for Critical Thinking
From Abstract:... A total of 1966 horizontally-drilled producing wells from the Barnett Shale were evaluated to determine commercial gas reserves using standard decline methods. Based on this analysis, using a net-to-producer cost of $6.25/MMBtu, only 30% of Barnett Shale wells will realize revenues that meet or exceed drilling, completion and operating costs in the most-likely case based on assumptions incorporated into a 10% net present value (NPV10) economic model. At current gas prices, only 11% of these wells will pay out and, using realistic netbacks, only about 2% of wells make money... see full abstract.