Few nations have as colorful and vivid a history as Russia. At times torn between the East and the West, sometimes buffering the two, Russia has always been a pot of enormous ethnic diversity which refuses to melt. The result has been a mixture of socialism and capitalism, of east and west, Christianity and Islam with a bit of social experimentation thrown in.
This page attempts to capture the flavor of the rich diversity evolving over Russian history and hence depends as much on the endeavors of others as those of the Russian Studies Program. We hope you enjoy your visit and learn more about the origins of the Russians and their neighbors.
This chronology of Russian history provides the dates the major events of Russian history from the beginnings of written Russian history (The Tale of By-gone Years) through the current year.
An enormous set of resources on Russian history, history of the former Soviet republics, Russian regions and world history. It includes a large list of history referats and a large number of links to Russian history resources on the Web.
This is a brief extract from the ArcheoBiblioBase information system on archival repositories in the Russian Federation, maintained by Patricia Kennedy Grimsted (the first to teach Russian history at Bucknell) in collaboration with Rosarkhiv, the Federal Archival Service of Russia. All though an extract, it is the most complete listing of repositories on the Web.
This is a moderated discussion group focused on Russian history. Messages from specialists in Russian history are exchanged via e-mail and are archived at this site.
The Russian Dynasties
This page contains the family trees of the two royal families of pre-Revolutionary Russia:
The ancient assembly of the Russian nobility is now on-line with news, history, and other information about the royal family. This organization represents the remaining members of the tsarist family living in Russian and about the world.
A fascinating website based on the PBS series written by James Billington, Librarian of Congress and former professor of Russian history at Princeton (author of The Icon and the Axe). This site covers the breadth of Russian history with lavish graphics and cameo texts about bits and pieces of Russian history. It also provides information on how to obtain the 3-part video series.
A new electronic journal of Russian history on line, including a page of delightful historical anecdotes. The table of contents of the first issue (Windows 1251 font):
- Московское масонство последней четверти XVIII века (В. Пономарева и Л. Хорошилова
- Золото России (В. Сироткин)
- Некоторые новые данные анализа сил и потерь на советско-германском фронте (Г. Кривошеев)
- Золото России (В. Сироткин)
An in-depth, detailed history of the Russian capital by Anton Lagutin and Serge Shokarev, and mounted by Leonid Bezmozgii (a Soros Foundation project). Its 12 chapters currently (July 1999) cover the history of Moscow from the Paleolithic era to the end of the 16th century.
The Khazars were the only nation to convert as a whole to Judaism. They were the neighbors of Kievan Rus' from 650 to 1016. Read about their interesting history here.
This exhibition portrays more the history Christian persecution of the Jews in Europe and in Russia than an actual history Judaism in Russia. As the authors say, "above all, the exhibition wants to warn of the great dangers of prejudice and intolerance, particularly in times of political uncertainty and increased social tension." However, it is well-executed and the message is an eternal one that we keep forgetting.
Six lectures by Maksim Kovalevsky, August 27, 1851-March 23, 1916 covering matrimonial customs, the state of the Russian family at the turn of the century, the Russian village community, old Russian folk mores, old Russian parliaments, personal servitude in Russia.
The History of the Russian Law Codes
Russia has had some of the best constitutions in the world over its history. The earliest law code we know of is the Russkaya Pravda, written under Yaroslav the Wise in the 11th century. In 1497 Ivan III compiled all the laws into the Sudebnik, Russia's next unified legal code. It was followed by the Sobornoe Ulozhenie, completed in 1649 under Alexis Mikhailovich. The full Russian text of the Ulozhenie is available from the Istfak at MGU. In anticipation of the reforms of 1864, Alexander II established a commission which produced The Basic Principles Concerning the Reform of the Judicial Administration of Russia in 1862. Cheri Wilson has written an introduction to her translation. The emperors found it possible to get along without constitutions until the Fundamental Law of 1906 but once the tsars were removed, the Soviets compensated for the years without a constitution with three. Here they are along with the new Russian constitution.
For more information on Russian laws, try the Russian Legal Server.
In 1995 the Royal British Columbia Museum in Victoria hosted an exhibit entitled Empires Beyond the Great Wall: The Heritage of Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan created a legacy of empire-building which made him one of the world's most famous historical figures. He conquered Kiev Rus' in 1240 and his progeny controlled Russia until 1490. The Khan and his little known civilization, the Mongols, also created a culture of splendor, wealth and beauty almost unparalleled to this day. Eric Hildinger has written an article on the invasion of Europe from the European perspective.
The Treasures of the Tsars
This an exhibition of the treasures of the tsars which was mounted in 1995 at the Florida International Museum in St. Petersburg, Florida (guess who her sister-city is). The St. Petersburg Times has been kind enough to maintain the website for the benefit of us all. Take a look at some of the exhibits as well as historical information about the two Russian dynasties, the Ruriks and the Romanovs.
The Stroganoff's played a major role not only in the development of Russian cuisine, but in the development of Siberia. Learn all about them at this beautiful site by Bob Atchison.
In 1722 Peter I introduced obligatory service to the state for all the upper classes. All members of the upper classes had to serve in the army, navy, judicial, or civil service. As an enticement to apply themselves, Peter set up a table of ranks, 14 of them for civil service, fewer for other services. Hereditary nobility was bestowed on all who reached the 8th rank.
A rich Russian language resource of articles on various aspects of Russian history, including the Third Rome, Slavophilism, the Intervention by Ostryalov, Vorobiev, Losev and others. Other topics include philosophy, politics, and history.
An enormous archive of a wide range of archived documents about the Napoleonic invasion by the Virtual Museum of 1812, initiated by Oleg Polyakov. A remarkable resource, indeed, for students and research of Russian history.
Petr IA. Chaadaev and the Rise of Russian Cultural Criticism, 1800-1830
A doctoral dissertation by Gordon Southworth Cook, Jr. that applies the biographical approach to examine the first 35 years of Chaadaev's life. It explores those critical attitudes towards Russian society and culture expressed in much of the literary criticism of the 1820s, in the programs and goals of the secret societies of the Decembrists, and finally in Chaadaev's First Philosophical Letter.
Historical Maps of Russia and East-Central Europe
Federation of East European Family History Societies, which also supplies is with a wealth of genealogical information, now has a remarkable map room with 57 (and growing) 19th-century maps of the Russian Empire and East-Central Europe.
Russian Empire, 1895-1910: Photographs from the Keystone-Mast Collection
900 stereoscopic photographs of Russia in the Keystone-Mast collection of the California Museum of Photography at the University of California, Riverside. This database now provides access to detailed textual descriptions, city maps, images as enlargements, stereoscopic views and significant details useful in architectural analysis.
Russians settled as far south as Fort Ross, now in San Francisco. However, the retreated to Alaska where they continued to trap. Most stayed when Alaska was sold to the US in 1867 and continue their cultural traditions to this day. This is their web site.
This smaller palace in Tsarskoe Selo was built by Catherine II for her grandson, Alexander Pavlovich, who, as it turned out, preferred Catherine's own more luxurious Summer Palace. However, Nicholas II and Alexandra enjoyed this palace and spent most of their summers there until the abdication.
The State Hermitage Museum and Broughton International present this exhibition of the last imperial family. Another beautifully designed website by Bob Atchison.
The period of Russian history from 1917 to 1991 has recently been referred to as 'The Period of Socialist Experimentation'. It began with the philosophy of Karl Marx as modified by Vladimir Ilich Lenin. The Communist Manifesto by Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx can be found here. The Marxist Internet Archive is the oldest and deepest on-line resource of Marxism. This site contains old photos, biographies, and an extensive archive of the works of these Marxists.
A large archive of documents from 1917-1919, including documents by Lenin, letters from US ambassadors, bibliographies, sounds, graphics, and the 1918 Constitution. A part of the Marxist Internet Archive.
The Soviet Archives Exhibit
The Library of Congress' exhibit of Soviet memorabilia, including the orders and letters of Lenin, Bukharin, and other Bolshevik leaders. This exhibit contains crucial evidence for assessing the failure of socialism in Russia and understanding the tragedies of Stalinism.
This site provides information of all the sources of the ArcheoBiblioBase information system on archival repositories for documents on all aspects of the Russian Federation, maintained by Patricia Kennedy Grimsted in collaboration with Rosarkhiv, the Federal Archival Service of Russia. The documents in these archives may be accessed through Russian Archive for $100-200 per document.
The Cold War
This CNN 16-part special is backed up by an elaborate multimedia website which includes course materials for classroom instructors. The most elaborate treatment of the Cold War since it ended.
This guide was established on 1 March 1997 by Slava Gerovitch to provide information resources for historians of Russian and Soviet science and technology worldwide and is rapidly growing. It currently contains links to people, institutes, journals, bibliographies of Russian and Soviet technology. Look under 'People' for the listing of Bucknell's own Andrew Jenks '86.